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The Papacy - A Historical Perspective

1055-1073 A.D.

VICTOR II : 1055-1057 A.D.

153. Born in Bavaria. Elected April 16, 1055 - died June 28, 1057.

He was elected after one year of vacant office.

He received the abjuration from Berengarius.

He blessed Henry III at the point of death.

Following the rules established by his predecessor, he made the Church thrive.

One of his first actions was that of sending cardinailldebrando Aldobrandeschi to France with the task of calling councils and fight against the numerous heresies.

He is buried in Ravenna in Santa Reparata.

His pontificate lasted 2 years and 3 months.

STEPHEN IX : 1057-1058 A.D.

154. Born in Lorraine. Elected August 3, 1057 - died March 29, 1058.

As soon as he was elected he tried to raise the moral behaviour of the clergy.

He was surrounded by distinguished and important councillors who supported him in politics.

He prohibited marriages between kinsmen.

Stephen IX is the last of the five German popes who came to the papal seat after Clement II. He invited cardinal Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi to push Henry IV, who was still tutored by his mother, to stop the trade of ecclesiastic dignities, which was very intense in Germany both with regard to simony and abuses of power.

He is buried in the Cathedral of Florence.

His pontificate lasted about 8 months.

NICHOLAS II : 1059-1061 A.D.

155. Born in Burgundy. Elected January 24,1059 - died July 27,1061.

He called a synod in Rome where he prohibited the appointment of bishops without papal authorisation and he decided that the election of the Pope was reserved only to cardinals-bishops (dioceses) and to cardinals- priests (parishes).

This was the most important action taken by Nicholas II and this decree made the College of Roman Cardinals become a real ecclesiastic senate.

He is buried in the Cathedral of Florence.

His pontificate lasted 2 years and 2 months.

ALEXANDER II : 1061-1073 A.D.

156. Born in Milan, he was not elected in Rome, but in Terracina October 1st, 1061- died.ApriI 21, 1073.

His activity was religious rather than politIcal.

He took action m favour of the reform of the French Clergy.

He was not recognised by the German empire and Henry IV opposed to him Onorius II as an anti-pope, causing turmoil and wars.

People use to say that the Romans once saw four big camels walking along the streets of Rome, which Pope Alexander II received by Earl Ruggero, governor of Sicily.

He is buried in the Grottoes of the St. Peter's Basilica.

His pontificate lasted 11 years and 6 months.

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