Innocent III : 1198-1216 A.D.
176. Born in Anagni. Elected February 22,1198 - died July 16, 1216.
A man of great qualities, he exerted a strong influence.
He restored the temporal authority in the Pontifical States.
He promoted the IV Crusade. He approved the Dominican and Franciscan orders.
He called the 12th Ecumenical Council.
He forbade churchmen to play cards.
The use of keys as a Papal emblem dates back to this period.
He accurately defined the issue of the ring, worn by cardinals and bishops; the engraved stone was used as a seal; Innocent decided that amethysts, sapphires, topazes and rubies were the stones to be used.
He was buried in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano. His pontificate lasted about 18 years and a half.
Honorius III : 1216-1227 A.D.
177. Born in Rome. Elected July 24 - died February 8,1227.
He wrote the " Liber Censorium" on the rights of Popes and established the ceremonial for the election.Gregory IX : 1227-1241 A.D.
He organised the 5th Crusade together with Andrew II of Hungary.
Thanks to John I of Sweden, Christianity was extended to Estonia.
He granted the Church of Santa Sabina in Rome to San Domenico, as well as the annexed palace in the garden of which you might still find the first orange-tree imported from Spain by Dominic himself.
He was buried in S. Maria Maggiore. His pontificate lasted 10 years and 8 months.
178. Born in Anagni. Elected March 21, 1227 -died August 22, 1241.
He excommunicated Frederick II for his demeanor.
He instituted the "Holy Inquisition".
He approved the collection of divine offices, called "breviary" and later modified by John XXIII in 1960.
He organised the University of Paris through the Bull Parens Scientiarium and organised the 6th Crusade.
He canonized St. Francis of Assisi (1228), St. Anthony of Padua and St. Dominic of Guzman (1234).
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. His pontificate lasted about 14 years and 6 months.
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