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The Papacy - A Historical Perspective

1362-1389 A.D.

BL. Urban V : 1362-1370 A.D.

200. Born in France. Elected November 6, 1362 - died December 19, 1370.

He tried to return to Rome but after 3 years of troubles he came back to Avignon.

He added the 3rd crown to the tiara (triregnum), the "Imperial Power"; the 2nd one was the "Regal Power" (Boniface VIII); the 1st one was the "Spiritual Power" (Sergius III).

The Conclave for Urban V was the fourth ever held in France.

On the day of the crowning he refused to solemnly appear riding on a horse, since he believed that the pontifical dignity had been exiled to Avignon.

He ordered the rebuilding of the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano, destroyed in 1360; he decorated the major altar with the tabernacle and closed in silver busts the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul previously kept in the Sancta Sanctorum.

He was buried in the Church of St. Victor in Marseilles. His pontificate lasted about 8 years and 2 months.

Gregory XI : 1371-1378 A.D.

201.Born ill Maumont (France). Elected January 5, 1371 - died February 26, 1378.

Thanks to the intervention of St. Catherine he brought the Holy See back to Rome.

The Roman Senate donated part of the Vatican hill to him.

He included S. Maria Maggiore among the basilicas destined to the jubilee indulgence.

Gregory realised that by staying in France he could not manage to preserve the unity of the Pontifical State.

Therefore, despite the foreseeable oppositions of French bishops, he decided to return to Rome on January 17th 1377.

On the very night in which Gregory XI died, March 26th 1378, the palace of Avignon was almost completely destroyed by fire. Gregory was the last French Pope.

He is buried in the Church of Santa Francesca Romana. His pontificate lasted 7 years and 3 months.

Urban VI :1378-1389 A.D.

202. Born in Naples. Elected April 18, 1378 - died October 15,1389.

This was the first conclave held in the Vatican.

He was the last Pope to be elected without being a cardinal.

The anti-pope Clement VII was defined Anti-Christ by St. Catherine of Siena.

England, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, Northern and Central Italy remained faithful to Urban VI.

France, Scotland, Spain and the Kingdom of Naples were in favour of Clement VII, causing the schism that lasted 40 years.

Historians agree on the fact that the Lutheran reform began in this period.

He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. His pontificate lasted 11 years and 6 months.

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