verses 1-10, 17-42,
46-56, 61-64 have been omitted from the
 Now it came to pass, after that
Alexander the son of Philip the
Macedonian, who first reigned in Greece, coming out of the land of
Cethim, had overthrown Darius king of the Persians and Medes:  He
fought many battles, and took the strong holds of all, and slew the
kings of the earth:  And he went through even to the ends of the
earth, and took the spoils of many nations: and the earth was quiet
before him.  And he gathered a power, and a very strong army: and
his heart was exalted and lifted up.  And he subdued countries of
nations, and princes: and they became tributaries to him.  And after
these things, he fell down upon his bed, and knew that he should die.
 And he called his servants the nobles that were brought up with him
from his youth: and he divided his kingdom among them, while he was yet
alive.  And Alexander reigned twelve years, and he died.  And his
servants made themselves kings every one in his place:  And they
all put crowns upon themselves after his death, and their sons after
them many years, and evils were multiplied in the earth.
 And the kingdom was established before Antiochus, and he had a
mind to reign over the land of Egypt, that he might reign over two
kingdoms.  And he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with
chariots and elephants, and horsemen, and a great number of ships: 
And he made war against Ptolemee king of Egypt, but Ptolemee was afraid
at his presence, and fled, and many were wounded unto death.  And
he took the strong cities in the land of Egypt: and he took the spoils
of the land of Egypt.
 And after Antiochus had ravaged Egypt in the hundred and
forty-third year, he returned and went up against Israel.  And he
went up to Jerusalem with a great multitude.  And he proudly
entered into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the
candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof, and the table of
proposition, and the pouring vessels, and the vials, and the little
mortars of gold, and the veil, and the crowns, and the golden ornament
that was before the temple: and he broke them all in pieces.  And
he took the silver and gold, and the precious vessels: and he took the
hidden treasures which he found: and when he had taken all away he
departed into his own country.  And he made a great slaughter of
men, and spoke very proudly.
 And there was great mourning in Israel, and in every place where
 And the princes, and the ancients mourned, and the virgins and the
young men were made feeble, and the beauty of the women was changed.
 Every bridegroom took up lamentation: and the bride that sat in
the marriage bed, mourned:
 And the land was moved for the inhabitants thereof, and all the
house of Jacob was covered with confusion.
 And after two full years the king sent the chief collector of his
tributes to the cities of Juda, and he came to Jerusalem with a great
multitude.  And he spoke to them peaceable words in deceit: and
they believed him.  And he fell upon the city suddenly, and struck
it with a great slaughter, and destroyed much people in Israel. 
And he took the spoils of the city, and burnt it with fire, and threw
down the houses thereof, and the walls thereof round about:  And
they took the women captive, and the children, and the cattle they
possessed.  And they built the city of David with a great and
strong wall, and with strong towers, and made it a fortress for them:
 And they placed there a sinful nation, wicked men, and they
fortified themselves therein: and they stored up armour, and victuals,
and gathered together the spoils of Jerusalem;  And laid them up
there: and they became a great snare.  And this was a place to lie
in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil devil in Israel.
 And they shed innocent blood round about the sanctuary, and
defiled the holy place.
 And the inhabitants of Jerusalem fled away by reason of them, and
the city was made the habitation of strangers, and she became a
stranger to her own seed, and her children forsook her.
 Her sanctuary was desolate like a wilderness, her festival days
were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into reproach, her honours were
brought to nothing.
 Her dishonour was increased according to her glory, and her
excellency was turned into mourning.
 And the king sent letters by the hands of messengers to Jerusalem,
and to all the cities of Juda: that they should follow the law of the
nations of the earth,  And should forbid holocausts and sacrifices,
and atonements to be made in the temple of God.  And should
prohibit the sabbath, and the festival days, to be celebrated.  And
he commanded the holy places to be profaned, and the holy people of
Israel.  And he commanded altars to be built, and temples, and
idols, and swine's flesh to be immolated, and unclean beasts.  And
that they should leave their children uncircumcised, and let their
souls be defiled with all uncleannesses, and abominations, to the end
that they should forget the law, and should change all the
justifications of God.  And that whosoever would not do according
to the word of king Antiochus should be put to death.
 According to all these words he wrote to his whole kingdom, and he
appointed rulers over the people that should force them to do these
things.  And they commanded the cities of Juda to sacrifice. 
Then many of the people were gathered to them that had forsaken the law
of the Lord: and they committed evils in the land:  And they drove
away the people of Israel into lurking holes, and into the secret
places of fugitives.
 Thus by their power did they deal with the people of Israel, that
were found in the cities month after month.  And on the five and
twentieth day of the month they sacrificed upon the altar of the idol
that was over against the altar of God.  Now the women that
circumcised their children, were slain according to the commandment of
king Antiochus.  And they hanged the children about their necks in
all their houses: and those that had circumcised them, they put to
verses 1-14, 30-70
have been omitted from the Mass readings.
 In those days arose Mathathias the
son of John, the son of Simeon,
a priest of the sons of Joarib, from Jerusalem, and he abode in the
mountain of Modin.  And he had five sons: John who was surnamed
Gaddis:  And Simon, who was surnamed Thasi:  And Judas, who was
called Machabeus:  And Eleazar, who was surnamed Abaron: and
Jonathan, who was surnamed Apphus.
 These saw the evils that were done in the people of Juda, and in
Jerusalem.  And Mathathias said:
Woe is me, wherefore was I born to see the ruin of my people, and the
ruin of the holy city, and to dwell there, when it is given into the
hands of the enemies?  The holy places are come into the hands of
strangers: her temple is become as a man without honour.  The
vessels of her glory are carried away captive: her old men are murdered
in the streets, and her young men are fallen by the sword of the
 What nation hath not inherited her kingdom, and gotten of her
 All her ornaments are taken away. She that was free is made a
 And behold our sanctuary, and our beauty, and our glory is laid
waste, and the Gentiles have defiled them.
 To what end then should we live any longer?
 And Mathathias and his sons rent their garments, and they covered
themselves with haircloth, and made great lamentation.
 And they abode there, they and their children, and their wives,
and their cattle: because afflictions increased upon them.
 And it was told to the king's men, and to the army that was in
Jerusalem in the city of David, that certain men who had broken the
king's commandment, were gone away into the secret places in the
wilderness, and that many were gone after them.  And forthwith they
went out towards them, and made war against them on the sabbath day,
 And they said to them:
Do you still resist? come forth, and do according to the edict of king
Antiochus, and you shall live.
 And they said:
We will not come forth, neither will we obey the king's edict, to
profane the sabbath day.
 And they made haste to give them battle.  But they answered
them not, neither did they cast a stone at them, nor stopped up the
secret places,  Saying:
Let us all die in our innocency: and heaven and earth shall be
witnesses for us, that you put us to death wrongfully.
 So they gave them battle on the sabbath: and they were slain with
their wives, and their children, and their cattle, to the number of a
thousand persons.  And Mathathias and his friends heard of it, and
they mourned for them exceedingly.  And every man said to his
If we shall all do as our brethren have done, and not fight against the
heathens for our lives, and our justifications: they will now quickly
root us out of the earth.
 And they determined in that day, saying: Whosoever shall come up
against us to fight on the sabbath day, we will fight against him: and
we will not all die, as our brethren that were slain in the secret
 Then was assembled to them the congregation of the Assideans, the
stoutest of Israel, every one that had a good will for the law. 
And all they that fled from the evils, joined themselves to them, and
were a support to them.  And they gathered an army, and slew the
sinners in their wrath, and the wicked men in their indignation: and
the rest fled to the nations for safety.
 And Mathathias and his friends went round about, and they threw
down the altars:  And they circumcised all the children whom they
found in the confines of Israel that were uncircumcised: and they did
valiantly.  And they pursued after the children of pride, and the
work prospered in their hands:  And they recovered the law out of
the hands of the nations, and out of the hands of the kings: and they
yielded not the horn to the sinner.
 Now the days drew near that Mathathias should die, and he said to
Now hath pride and chastisement gotten strength, and the time of
destruction, and the wrath of indignation:  Now therefore, O my
sons, be ye zealous for the law, and give your lives for the covenant
of your fathers.  And call to remembrance the works of the fathers,
which they have done in their generations: and you shall receive great
glory, and an everlasting name.  Was not Abraham found faithful in
temptation, and it was reputed to him unto justice?  Joseph in the
time of his distress kept the commandment, and he was made lord of
Egypt.  Phinees our father, by being fervent in the zeal of God,
received the covenant of an everlasting priesthood.  Jesus, whilst
he fulfilled the word, was made ruler in Israel.  Caleb, for
bearing witness before the congregation, received an inheritance. 
David by his mercy obtained the throne of an everlasting kingdom. 
Elias, while he was full of zeal for the law, was taken up into heaven.
 Ananias and Azarias and Misael by believing, were delivered out of
the flame.  Daniel in his innocency was delivered out of the mouth
of the lions.
 And thus consider through all generations: that none that trust in
him fail in strength.  And fear not the words of a sinful man, for
his glory is dung, and worms:  Today he is lifted up, and tomorrow
he shall not be found, because he is returned into his earth; and his
thought is come to nothing.
 You therefore, my sons, take courage, and behave manfully in the
law: for by it you shall be glorious.  And behold, I know that your
brother Simon is a man of counsel: give ear to him always, and he shall
be a father to you.  And Judas Machabeus who is valiant and strong
from his youth up, let him be the leader of your army, and he shall
manage the war of the people.  And you shall take to you all that
observe the law: and revenge ye the wrong of your people.  Render
to the Gentiles their reward, and take heed to the precepts of the law.
 And he blessed them, and was joined to his fathers.  And he
died in the hundred and forty-sixth year: and he was buried by his sons
in the sepulchres of his fathers in Modin, and all Israel mourned for
him with great mourning.
verses 1-60 have been
omitted from the Mass readings.
 Then his son Judas, called
Machabeus, rose up in his stead.  And
all his brethren helped him, and all they that had joined themselves to
his father, and they fought with cheerfulness the battle of Israel.
 And he got his people great honour, and put on a breastplate as a
giant, and girt his warlike armour about him in battles, and protected
the camp with his sword.
 In his acts he was like a lion, and like a lion's whelp roaring for
 And he pursued the wicked and sought them out, and them that
troubled his people he burnt with fire:
 And his enemies were driven away for fear of him, and all the
workers of iniquity were troubled: and salvation prospered in his hand.
 And he grieved many kings, and made Jacob glad with his works, and
his memory is blessed for ever.
 And he went through the cities of Juda, and destroyed the wicked
out of them, and turned away wrath from Israel.
 And he was renowned even to the utmost part of the earth, and he
gathered them that were perishing.
 And Apollonius gathered together the Gentiles, and a numerous and
great army from Samaria, to make war against Israel.
 And Judas understood it, and went forth to meet him: and he
overthrew him, and killed him: and many fell down slain, the rest fled
away.  And he took their spoils, and Judas took the sword of
Apollonius, and fought with it all his lifetime.
 And Seron captain of the army of Syria heard that Judas had
assembled a company of the faithful, and a congregation with him, 
And he said: I will get me a name, and will be glorified in the
kingdom, and will overthrow Judas, and those that are with him, that
have despised the edict of the king.
 And he made himself ready: and the host of the wicked went up with
him, strong succours, to be revenged of the children of Israel. 
And they approached even as far as Bethoron: and Judas went forth to
meet him, with a small company.  But when they saw the army coming
to meet them, they said to Judas:
How shall we, being few, be able to fight against so great a multitude
and so strong, and we are ready to faint with fasting today?
 And Judas said:
It is an easy matter for many to be shut up in the hands of a few: and
there is no difference in the sight of the God of heaven to deliver
with a great multitude, or with a small company:  For the success
of war is not in the multitude of the army, but strength cometh from
heaven.  They come against us with an insolent multitude, and with
pride, to destroy us, and our wives, and our children, and to take our
spoils.  But we will fight for our lives and our laws:  And the
Lord himself will overthrow them before our face: but as for you, fear
 And as soon as he had made an end of speaking, he rushed suddenly
upon them: and Seron and his host were overthrown before him:  And
he pursued him by the descent of Bethoron even to the plain, and there
fell of them eight hundred men, and the rest fled into the land of the
 And the fear of Judas and of his brethren, and the dread of them
fell upon all the nations round about them.  And his fame came to
the king, and all nations told of the battles of Judas.
 Now when king Antiochus heard these words, he was angry in his
mind: and he sent and gathered the forces of all his kingdom, an
exceeding strong army.  And he opened his treasury, and gave out
pay to the army for a year: and he commanded them, that they should be
ready for all things.  And he perceived that the money of his
treasures failed, and that the tributes of the country were small
because of the dissension, and the evil that he had brought upon the
land, that he might take away the laws of old times:  And he feared
that he should not have as formerly enough, for charges and gifts,
which he had given before with a liberal hand: for he had abounded more
than the kings that had been before him.  And he was greatly
perplexed in mind, and purposed to go into Persia, and to take tributes
of the countries, and to gather much money.  And he left Lysias, a
nobleman of the blood royal, to oversee the affairs of the kingdom,
from the river Euphrates even to the river of Egypt:  And to bring
up his son Antiochus, till he came again.  And he delivered to him
half the army, and the elephants: and he gave him charge concerning all
that he would have done, and concerning the inhabitants of Judea, and
Jerusalem:  And that he should send an army against them, to
destroy and root out the strength of Israel, and the remnant of
Jerusalem, and to take away the memory of them from that place: 
And that he should settle strangers to dwell in all their coasts, and
divide their land by lot.
 So the king took the half of the army that remained, and went
forth from Antioch the chief city of his kingdom, in the hundred and
forty-seventh year: and he passed over the river Euphrates, and went
through the higher countries.
 Then Lysias chose Ptolemee the son of Dorymenus, and Nicanor, and
Gorgias, mighty men of the king's friends.  And he sent with them
forty thousand men, and seven thousand horsemen: to go into the land of
Juda, and to destroy it according to the king's orders.  So they
went forth with all their power, and came, and pitched near Emmaus in
the plain country.
 And the merchants of the countries heard the fame of them: and
they took silver and gold in abundance, and servants: and they came
into the camp, to buy the children of Israel for slaves: and there were
joined to them the forces of Syria, and of the land of the strangers.
 And Judas and his brethren saw that evils were multiplied, and
that the armies approached to their borders: and they knew the orders
the king had given to destroy the people and utterly abolish them. 
And they said every man to his neighbour:
Let us raise up the low condition of our people, and let us fight for
our people, and our sanctuary.
 And the assembly was gathered that they might be ready for battle:
and that they might pray, and ask mercy and compassion.
 Now Jerusalem was not inhabited, but was like a desert: there was
none of her children that went in or out: and the sanctuary was trodden
down: and the children of strangers were in the castle, there was the
habitation of the Gentiles: and joy was taken away from Jacob, and the
pipe and harp ceased there.
 And they assembled together, and came to Maspha over against
Jerusalem: for in Maspha was a place of prayer heretofore in Israel.
 And they fasted that day, and put on haircloth, and put ashes upon
their heads: and they rent their garments:  And they laid open the
books of the law, in which the Gentiles searched for the likeness of
their idols:  And they brought the priestly ornaments, and the
firstfruits and tithes, and stirred up the Nazarites that had fulfilled
their days:  And they cried with a loud voice toward heaven, saying:
What shall we do with these, and whither shall we carry them?  For
thy holies are trodden down, and are profaned, and thy priests are in
mourning, and are brought low.  And behold the nations are come
together against us to destroy us: thou knowest what they intend
against us.  How shall we be able to stand before their face,
unless thou, O God, help us?
 Then they sounded with trumpets, and cried out with a loud voice.
 And after this Judas appointed captains over the people, over
thousands, and over hundreds, and over fifties, and over tens.  And
he said to them that were building houses, or had betrothed wives, or
were planting vineyards, or were fearful, that they should return every
man to his house, according to the law.
 So they removed the camp, and pitched on the south side of Emmaus.
 And Judas said:
Gird yourselves, and be valiant men, and be ready against the morning,
that you may fight with these nations that are assembled against us to
destroy us and our sanctuary.  For it is better for us to die in
battle, than to see the evils of our nation, and of the holies: 
Nevertheless as it shall be the will of God in heaven so be it done.
verses 1-35, 38-51,
60-61 have been omitted from the Mass
 Then Gorgias took five thousand
men, and a thousand of the best
horsemen: and they removed out of the camp by night.  That they
might come upon the camp of the Jews, and strike them suddenly: and the
men that were of the castle were their guides.
 And Judas heard of it, and rose up, he and the valiant men, to
attack the king's forces that were in Emmaus.  For as yet the army
was dispersed from the camp.
 And Gorgias came by night into the camp of Judas, and found no man,
and he sought them in the mountains: for he said: These men flee from
us.  And when it was day, Judas shewed himself in the plain with
three thousand men only, who neither had armour nor swords.  And
they saw the camp of the Gentiles that it was strong, and the men in
breastplates, and the horsemen round about them, and these were trained
up to war.  And Judas said to the men that were with him: Fear ye
not their multitude, neither be ye afraid of their assault.
 Remember in what manner our fathers were saved in the Red Sea, when
Pharao pursued them with a great army.  And now let us cry to
heaven: and the Lord will have mercy on us, and will remember the
covenant of our fathers, and will destroy this army before our face
this day:  And all nations shall know that there is one that
redeemeth and delivereth Israel.
 And the strangers lifted up their eyes, and saw them coming
against them.  And they went out of the camp to battle, and they
that were with Judas sounded the trumpet.  And they joined battle:
and the Gentiles were routed, and fled into the plain.  But all the
hindmost of them fell by the sword, and they pursued them as far as
Gezeron, and even to the plains of Idumea, and of Azotus, and of
Jamnia: and there fell of them to the number of three thousand men.
 And Judas returned again with his army that followed him,  And
he said to the people:
Be not greedy of the spoils: for there is war before us:  And
Gorgias and his army are near us in the mountain: but stand ye now
against our enemies, and overthrow them, and you shall take the spoils
afterwards with safety.
 And as Judas was speaking these words, behold part of them
appeared looking forth from the mountain.  And Gorgias saw that his
men were put to flight, and that they had set fire to the camp: for the
smoke that was seen declared what was done.  And when they had seen
this, they were seized with great fear, seeing at the same time Judas
and his army in the plain ready to fight.  So they all fled away
into the land of the strangers.
 And Judas returned to take the spoils of the camp, and they got
much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great
riches.  And returning home they sung a hymn, and blessed God in
heaven, because he is good, because his mercy endureth for ever.
 So Israel had a great deliverance that day.
 And such of the strangers as escaped, went and told Lysias all
that had happened.  And when he heard these things, he was amazed
and discouraged: because things had not succeeded in Israel according
to his mind, and as the king had commanded.  So the year following
Lysias gathered together threescore thousand chosen men, and five
thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them.  And they came into
Judea, and pitched their tents in Bethoron, and Judas met them with ten
thousand men.  And they saw that the army was strong, and he
prayed, and said:
Blessed art thou, O Saviour of Israel, who didst break the violence of
the mighty by the hand of thy servant David, and didst deliver up the
camp of the strangers into the hands of Jonathan the son of Saul and of
his armourbearer.  Shut up this army in the hands of thy people
Israel, and let them be confounded in their host and their horsemen.
 Strike them with fear, and cause the boldness of their strength to
languish, and let them quake at their own destruction.  Cast them
down with the sword of them that love thee: and let all that know thy
name, praise thee with hymns.
 And they joined battle: and there fell of the army of Lysias five
 And when Lysias saw that his men were put to flight, and how bold
the Jews were, and that they were ready either to live, or to die
manfully, he went to Antioch, and chose soldiers, that they might come
again into Judea with greater numbers.
 And they saw the sanctuary desolate, and the altar profaned, and
the gates burnt, and shrubs growing up in the courts as in a forest, or
on the mountains, and the chambers joining to the temple thrown down.
 And they rent their garments, and made great lamentation, and put
ashes on their heads:  And they fell face down to the ground on
their faces, and they sounded with the trumpets of alarm, and they
cried towards heaven.  Then Judas appointed men to fight against
them that were in the castle, till they had cleansed the holy places.
 And he chose priests without blemish, whose will was set upon the
law of God:  And they cleansed the holy places, and took away the
stones that had been defiled into an unclean place.
 And he considered about the altar of holocausts that had been
profaned, what he should do with it.  And a good counsel came into
their minds, to pull it down: lest it should be a reproach to them,
because the Gentiles had defiled it; so they threw it down.  And
they laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient
place, till there should come a prophet, and give answer concerning
them.  Then they took whole stones according to the law, and built
a new altar according to the former:
 And they built up the holy places, and the things that were within
the temple: and they sanctified the temple, and the courts.  And
they made new holy vessels, and brought in the candlestick, and the
altar of incense, and the table into the temple.  And they put
incense upon the altar, and lighted up the lamps that were upon the
candlestick, and they gave light in the temple.
 And they set the loaves upon the table, and hung up the veils, and
finished all the works that they had begun to make.
 They built up also at that time mount Sion, with high walls, and
strong towers round about, lest the Gentiles should at any time come,
and tread it down as they did before.  And he placed a garrison
there to keep it, and he fortified it to secure Bethsura, that the
people might have a defence against Idumea.
verses 1-68 have been
omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now it came to pass, when the
nations round about heard that the
altar and the sanctuary were built up as before, that they were
exceeding angry.  And they thought to destroy the generation of
Jacob that were among them, and they began to kill some of the people,
and to persecute them.
 Then Judas fought against the children of Esau in Idumea, and them
that were in Acrabathane: because they beset the Israelites around
about, and he made a great slaughter of them.  And he remembered the
malice of the children of Bean: who were a snare and a stumblingblock
to the people, by lying in wait for them in the way.  And they were
shut up by him in towers, and he set upon them, and devoted them to
utter destruction, and burnt their towers with fire, and all that were
in them.  Then he passed over to the children of Ammon, where he
found a mighty power, and much people, and Timotheus was their captain:
 And he fought many battles with them, and they were discomfited in
their sight, and he smote them:  And he took the city of Gazer and
her towns, and returned into Judea.
 And the Gentiles that were in Galaad, assembled themselves together
against the Israelites that were in their quarters to destroy them: and
they fled into the fortress of Datheman.  And they sent letters to
Judas and his brethren, saying, The heathens that are round about are
gathered together against us, to destroy us:  And they are
preparing to come, and to take the fortress into which we are fled: and
Timotheus is the captain of their host.  Now therefore come, and
deliver us out of their hands, for many of us are slain.  And all
our brethren that were in the places of Tubin, are killed: and they
have carried away their wives, and their children, captives, and taken
their spoils, and they have slain there almost a thousand men.
 And while they were yet reading these letters, behold there came
other messengers out of Galilee with their garments rent, who related
according to these words:  Saying, that they of Ptolemais, and of
Tyre, and of Sidon, were assembled against them, and all Galilee is
filled with strangers, in order to consume us.
 Now when Judas and all the people heard these words, a great
assembly met together to consider what they should do for their
brethren that were in trouble, and were assaulted by them.  And
Judas said to Simon his brother:
Choose thee men, and go, and deliver thy brethren in Galilee: and I,
and my brother Jonathan will go into the country of Galaad.
 And he left Joseph the son of Zacharias, and Azarias captains of
the people with the remnant of the army in Judea to keep it:  And
he commanded them, saying:
Take ye the charge of this people: but make no war against the
heathens, till we return.
 Now three thousand men were allotted to Simon, to go into Galilee:
and eight thousand to Judas to go into the land of Galaad.
 And Simon went into Galilee, and fought many battles with the
heathens: and the heathens were discomfited before his face, and he
pursued them even to the gate of Ptolemais.  And there fell of the
heathens almost three thousand men, and he took the spoils of them,
 And he took with him those that were in Galilee and in Arbatis
with their wives, and children, and all that they had, and he brought
them into Judea with great joy.
 And Judas Machabeus, and Jonathan his brother passed over the
Jordan, and went three days' journey through the desert.  And the
Nabutheans met them, and received them in a peaceable manner, and told
them all that happened to their brethren in the land of Galaad, 
And that many of them were shut up in Barasa, and in Bosor, and in
Alima, and in Casphor, and in Mageth, and in Carnaim: all these strong
and great cities.  Yea, and that they were kept shut up in the rest
of the cities of Galaad, and that they had appointed to bring their
army on the morrow near to these cities, and to take them and to
destroy them all in one day.
 Then Judas and his army suddenly turned their march into the
desert, to Bosor, and took the city: and he slew every male by the edge
of the sword, and took all their spoils, and burnt it with fire.
 And they removed from thence by night, and went till they came to
the fortress.  And it came to pass that early in the morning, when
they lifted up their eyes, behold there were people without number,
carrying ladders and engines to take the fortress, and assault them.
 And Judas saw that the fight was begun, and the cry of the battle
went up to heaven like a trumpet, and a great cry out of the city: 
And he said to his host:
Fight ye today for your brethren.
 And he came with three companies behind them, and they sounded
their trumpets, and cried out in prayer.
 And the host of Timotheus understood that it was Machabeus, and
they fled away before his face: and they made a great slaughter of
them: and there fell of them in that day almost eight thousand men.
 And Judas turned aside to Maspha, and assaulted, and took it, and
he slew every male thereof, and took the spoils thereof, and burnt it
with fire.  From thence he marched, and took Casbon, and Mageth,
and Bosor, and the rest of the cities of Galaad.
 But after this Timotheus gathered another army, and camped over
against Raphon beyond the torrent.  And Judas sent men to view the
army: and they brought him word, saying:
All the nations, that are round about us, are assembled unto him an
army exceeding great:  And they have hired the Arabians to help
them, and they have pitched their tents beyond the torrent, ready to
come to fight against thee.
And Judas went to meet them.  And Timotheus said to the captains of
When Judas and his army come near the torrent of water, if he pass over
unto us first, we shall not be able to withstand him: for he will
certainly prevail over us.  But if he be afraid to pass over, and
camp on the other side of the river, we will pass over to them and
shall prevail against him.
 Now when Judas came near the torrent of water, he set the scribes
of the people by the torrent, and commanded them, saying:
Suffer no man to stay behind: but let all come to the battle.
 And he passed over to them first, and all the people after him,
and all the heathens were discomfited before them, and they threw away
their weapons, and fled to the temple that was in Carnaim.  And he
took that city, and the temple he burnt with fire, with all things that
were therein: and Carnaim was subdued, and could not stand against the
face of Judas.
 And Judas gathered together all the Israelites that were in the
land of Galaad, from the least even to the greatest, and their wives,
and children, and an army exceeding great, to come into the land of
Juda.  And they came as far as Ephron: now this was a great city
situate in the way, strongly fortified, and there was no means to turn
from it on the right hand or on the left, but the way was through the
midst of it.  And they that were in the city, shut themselves in,
and stopped up the gates with stones: and Judas sent to them with
peaceable words,  Saying:
Let us pass through your land, to go into our country: and no man shall
hurt you: we will only pass through on foot.
But they would not open to them.
 Then Judas commanded proclamation to be made in the camp, that
they should make an assault every man in the place where he was. 
And the men of the army drew near, and he assaulted that city all the
day, and all the night, and the city was delivered into his hands: 
And they slew every male with the edge of the sword, and he razed the
city, and took the spoils thereof, and passed through all the city over
them that were slain.  Then they passed over the Jordan to the
great plain that is over against Bethsan.  And Judas gathered
together the hindmost, and he exhorted the people all the way through,
till they came into the land of Juda.  And they went up to mount
Sion with joy and gladness, and offered holocausts, because not one of
them was slain, till they had returned in peace.
 Now in the days that Judas and Jonathan were in the land of
Galaad, and Simon his brother in Galilee before Ptolemais,  Joseph
the son of Zacharias, and Azarias captain of the soldiers, heard of the
good success, and the battles that were fought.  And he said:
Let us also get us a name, and let us go fight against the Gentiles
that are round about us.
 And he gave charge to them that were in his army, and they went
towards Jamnia.  And Gorgias and his men went out of the city, to
give them battle.  And Joseph and Azarias were put to flight, and
were pursued unto the borders of Judea: and there fell, on that day, of
the people of Israel about two thousand men, and there was a great
overthrow of the people:  Because they did not hearken to Judas,
and his brethren, thinking that they should do manfully.  But they
were not of the seed of those men by whom salvation was brought to
 And the men of Juda were magnified exceedingly in the sight of all
Israel, and of all the nations where their name was heard.  And
people assembled to them with joyful acclamations.
 Then Judas and his brethren went forth and attacked the children
of Esau, in the land toward the south, and he took Chebron, and her
towns: and he burnt the walls thereof and the towers all round it. 
And he removed his camp to go into the land of the aliens, and he went
through Samaria.  In that day some priests fell in battle, while
desiring to do manfully they went out unadvisedly to fight.
 And Judas turned to Azotus into the land of the strangers, and he
threw down their altars, and he burnt the statues of their gods with
fire: and he took the spoils of the cities, and returned into the land
verses 14-63 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Then he called Philip, one of his
friends, and he made him regent
over all his kingdom.  And he gave him the crown, and his robe, and
his ring, that he should go to Antiochus his son, and should bring him
up for the kingdom.  So king Antiochus died there in the year one
hundred and forty-nine.  And Lysias understood that the king was
dead, and he set up Antiochus his son to reign, whom he brought up
young: and he called his name Eupator.
 Now they that were in the castle, had shut up the Israelites round
about the holy places: and they were continually seeking their hurt,
and to strengthen the Gentiles.  And Judas purposed to destroy
them: and he called together all the people, to besiege them.  And
they came together, and besieged them in the year one hundred and
fifty, and they made battering slings and engines.  And some of the
besieged got out: and some wicked men of Israel joined themselves unto
them.  And they went to the king, and said:
How long dost thou delay to execute the judgment, and to revenge our
brethren?  We determined to serve thy father and to do according to
his orders, and obey his edicts:  And for this they of our nation
are alienated from us, and have slain as many of us as they could find,
and have spoiled our inheritances.  Neither have they put forth
their hand against us only, but also against all our borders.  And
behold they have approached this day to the castle of Jerusalem to take
it, and they have fortified the stronghold of Bethsura:  And unless
thou speedily prevent them, they will do greater things than these, and
thou shalt not be able to subdue them.
 Now when the king heard this, he was angry: and he called together
all his friends, and the captains of his army, and them that were over
the horsemen.  There came also to him from other realms, and from
the islands of the sea hired troops.  And the number of his army
was an hundred thousand footmen, and twenty thousand horsemen, and
thirty-two elephants, trained to battle.  And they went through
Idumea, and approached to Bethsura, and fought many days, and they made
engines: but they sallied forth and burnt them with fire, and fought
 And Judas departed from the castle, and removed the camp to
Bethzacharam, over against the king's camp.  And the king rose
before it was light, and made his troops march on fiercely towards the
way of Bethzacharam: and the armies made themselves ready for the
battle, and they sounded the trumpets:  And they shewed the
elephants the blood of grapes, and mulberries to provoke them to fight.
 And they distributed the beasts by the legions: and there stood by
every elephant a thousand men in coats of mail, and with helmets of
brass on their heads: and five hundred horsemen set in order were
chosen for every beast.  These before the time wheresoever the
beast was, the were there: and withersoever it went, they went, and
they departed not from it.  And upon the beast, there were strong
wooden towers, which covered every one of them: and engines upon them:
and upon every one thirty-two valiant men, who fought from above; and
an Indian to rule the beast.  And the rest of the horsemen he
placed on this side and on that side at the two wings, with trumpets to
stir up the army, and to hasten them forward that stood thick together
in the legions thereof.
 Now when the sun shone upon the shields of gold, and of brass, the
mountains glittered therewith, and they shone like lamps of fire. 
And part of the king's army was distinguished by the high mountains,
and the other part by the low places: and they marched on warily and
orderly.  And all the inhabitants of the land were moved at the
noise of their multitude, and the marching of the company, and the
rattling of the armour, for the army was exceeding great and strong.
 And Judas and his army drew near for battle: and there fell of the
king's army six hundred men.  And Eleazar the son of Saura saw one
of the beasts harnessed with the king's harness: and it was higher than
the other beasts: and it seemed to him that the king was on it: 
And he exposed himself to deliver his people and to get himself an
everlasting name.  And he ran up to it boldly in the midst of the
legion, killing on the right hand, and on the left, and they fell by
him on this side and that side.  And he went between the feet of
the elephant, and put himself under it: and slew it, and it fell to the
ground upon him, and he died there.
 Then they seeing the strength of the king and the fierceness of
his army, turned away from them.  But the king's army went up
against them to Jerusalem: and the king's army pitched their tents
against Judea and mount Sion.  And he made peace with them that
were in Bethsura: and they came forth out of the city, because they had
no victuals, being shut up there, for it was the year of rest to the
land.  And the king took Bethsura: and he placed there a garrison
to keep it.  And he turned his army against the sanctuary for many
days: and he set up there battering slings, and engines and instruments
to cast fire, and engines to cast stones and javelins, and pieces to
shoot arrows, and slings.  And they also made engines against their
engines, and they fought for many days.  But there were no victuals
in the city, because it was the seventh year: and such as had stayed in
Judea of them that came from among the nations, had eaten the residue
of all that which had been stored up.  And there remained in the
holy places but a few, for the famine had prevailed over them: and they
were dispersed every man to his own place.
 Now Lysias heard that Philip, whom king Antiochus while he lived
had appointed to bring up his son Antiochus, and to reign, to be king,
 Was returned from Persia, and Media, with the army that went with
him, and that he sought to take upon him the affairs of the kingdom:
 Wherefore he made haste to go, and say to the king and to the
captains of the army:
We decay daily, and our provision of victuals is small, and the place
that we lay siege to is strong, and it lieth upon us to take order for
the affairs of the kingdom.  Now therefore let us come to an
agreement with these men, and make peace with them and with all their
nation.  And let us covenant with them, that they may live
according to their own laws as before. For because of our despising
their laws, they have been provoked, and have done all these things.
 And the proposal was acceptable in the sight of the king, and of
the princes: and he sent to them to make peace: and they accepted of
it.  And the king and the princes swore to them: and they came out
of the stronghold.  Then the king entered into mount Sion, and saw
the strength of the place: and he quickly broke the oath that he had
taken, and gave commandment to throw down the wall round about. 
And he departed in haste, and returned to Antioch, where he found
Philip master of the city: and he fought against him, and took the city.
verses 1-50 have been
omitted from the Mass readings.
 In the hundred and fifty-first year
Demetrius the son of Seleucus
departed from the city of Rome, and came up with a few men into a city
of the sea coast, and reigned there.  And it came to pass, as he
entered into the house of the kingdom of his fathers, that the army
seized upon Antiochus, and Lysias, to bring them unto him.  And when
he knew it, he said:
Let me not see their face.
 So the army slew them. And Demetrius sat upon the throne of his
kingdom:  And there came to him the wicked and ungodly men of
Israel: And Alcimus was at the head of them, who desired to be made
high priest.  And they accused the people to the king, saying:
Judas and his brethren have destroyed all thy friends, and he hath
driven us out of our land.  Now therefore send some man whom thou
trustest, and let him go, and see all the havock he hath made amongst
us, and in the king's lands: and let him punish all his friends and
 Then the king chose Bacchides, one of his friends that ruled beyond
the great river in the kingdom, and was faithful to the king: and he
sent him,  To see the havock that Judas had made: and the wicked
Alcimus he made high priest, and commanded him to take revenge upon the
children of Israel.  And they arose, and came with a great army
into the land of Juda: and they sent messengers, and spoke to Judas and
his brethren with peaceable words deceitfully.  But they gave no
heed to their words: for they saw that they were come with a great
army.  Then there assembled to Alcimus and Bacchides a company of
the scribes to require things that are just:  And first the
Assideans that were among the children of Israel, and they sought peace
of them.  For they said:
One that is a priest of the seed of Aaron is come, he will not deceive
 And he spoke to them peaceably: and he swore to them, saying:
We will do you no harm nor your friends.
 And they believed him. And he took threescore of them, and slew
them in one day, according to the word that is written:
 The flesh of thy saints, and the blood of them they have shed
round about Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them.  Then fear
and trembling fell upon all the people: for they said:
There is no truth, nor justice among them: for they have broken the
covenant, and the oath which they made.
 And Bacchides removed the camp from Jerusalem, and pitched in
Bethzecha: and he sent, and took many of them that were fled away from
him, and some of the people he killed, and threw them into a great pit.
 Then he committed the country to Alcimus, and left with him troops
to help him. So Bacchides went away to the king:  But Alcimus did
what he could to maintain his chief priesthood.  And they that
disturbed the people resorted to him, and they got the land of Juda
into their power, and did much hurt in Israel.
 And Judas saw all the evils that Alcimus, and they that were with
him, did to the children of Israel, much more than the Gentiles. 
And he went out into all the coasts of Juda round about, and took
vengeance upon the men that had revolted, and they ceased to go forth
any more into the country.  And Alcimus saw that Judas, and they
that were with him prevailed: and he knew that he could not stand
against them, and he went back to the king, and accused them of many
 And the king sent Nicanor one of his principal lords, who was a
great enemy to Israel: and he commanded him to destroy the people. 
And Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a great army, and he sent to Judas
and to his brethren deceitfully with friendly words,  Saying:
Let there be no fighting between me and you: I will come with a few men
to see your faces with peace.
 And he came to Judas, and they saluted one another peaceably: and
the enemies were prepared to take away Judas by force.  And the
thing was known to Judas that he was come to him with deceit: and he
was much afraid of him, and would not see his face any more.  And
Nicanor knew that his counsel was discovered: and he went out to fight
against Judas near Capharsalama.  And there fell of Nicanor's army
almost five thousand men, and they fled into the city of David.
 And after this Nicanor went up into mount Sion: and some of the
priests and the people came out to salute him peaceably, and to shew
him the holocausts that were offered for the king.  But he mocked
them and despised them, and abused them: and he spoke proudly,  And
swore in anger, saying:
Unless Judas and his army be delivered into my hands, as soon as ever I
return in peace, I will burn this house. And he went out in a great
 And the priests went in, and stood before the face of the altar
and the temple: and weeping, they said:
 Thou, O Lord, hast chosen this house for thy name to be called
upon therein, that it might be a house of prayer and supplication for
thy people.  Be avenged of this man, and his army, and let them
fall by the sword: remember their blasphemies, and suffer them not to
continue any longer.
 Then Nicanor went out from Jerusalem, and encamped near to
Bethoron: and an army of Syria joined him.
 But Judas pitched in Adarsa with three thousand men: and Judas
prayed, and said:
 O Lord, when they that were sent by king Sennacherib blasphemed
thee, an angel went out, and slew of them a hundred and eighty-five
thousand:  Even so destroy this army in our sight today, and let
the rest know that he hath spoken ill against thy sanctuary: and judge
thou him according to his wickedness.
 And the armies joined battle on the thirteenth day of the month
Adar: and the army of Nicanor was defeated, and he himself was first
slain in the battle.  And when his army saw that Nicanor was slain,
they threw away their weapons, and fled:  And they pursued after
them one day's journey from Adazer, even till ye come to Gazara, and
they sounded the trumpets after them with signals.  And they went
forth out of all the towns of Judea round about, and they pushed them
with the horns, and they turned again to them, and they were all slain
with the sword, and there was not left of them so much as one.  And
they took the spoils of them for a booty, and they cut off Nicanor's
head, and his right hand, which he had proudly stretched out, and they
brought it, and hung it up over against Jerusalem.
 And the people rejoiced exceedingly, and they spent that day with
great joy.  And he ordained that this day should be kept every
year, being the thirteenth of the month of Adar.
 And the land of Juda was quiet for a short time.
verses 1-32 have been
omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now Judas heard of the fame of the
Romans, that they are powerful
and strong, and willingly agree to all things that are requested of
them: and that whosoever have come to them, they have made amity with
them, and that they are mighty in power.  And they heard of their
battles, and their noble acts, which they had done in Galatia, how they
conquered them, and brought them under tribute:  And how great
things they had done in the land of Spain, and that they had brought
under their power the mines of silver and of gold that are there, and
had gotten possession of all the place by their counsel and patience:
 And had conquered places that were very far off from them, and
kings that came against them from the ends of the earth, and had
overthrown them with great slaughter: and the rest pay them tribute
every year.  And that they had defeated in battle Philip, and Perses
the king of the Ceteans, and the rest that had borne arms against them,
and had conquered them:  And how Antiochus the great king of Asia,
who went to fight against them, having a hundred and twenty elephants,
with horsemen, and chariots, and a very great army, was routed by them:
 And how they took him alive, and appointed to him, that both he and
they that should reign after him, should pay a great tribute, and that
he should give hostages, and that which was agreed upon,  And the
country of the Indians, and of the Medes, and of the Lydians, some of
their best provinces: and those which they had taken from them they
gave to king Eumenes.  And that they who were in Greece had a mind
to go and to destroy them: and they had knowledge thereof,  And
they sent a general against them, and fought with them, and many of
them were slain, and they carried away their wives and their children
captives, and spoiled them, and took possession of their land, and
threw down their walls, and brought them to be their servants unto this
day.  And the other kingdoms, and islands, that at any time had
resisted them, they had destroyed and brought under their power. 
But with their friends, and such as relied upon them, they kept amity,
and had conquered kingdoms that were near, and that were far off: for
all that heard their name, were afraid of them.  That whom they had
a mind to help to a kingdom, those reigned: and whom they would, they
deposed from a kingdom: and they were greatly exalted.  And none of
all these wore a crown, or was clothed in purple, to be magnified
thereby.  And that they made themselves a senate house, and
consulted daily three hundred and twenty men, that sat in council
always for the people, that they might do the things that were right.
 And that they committed their government to one man every year, to
rule over all their country, and they all obey one, and there is no
envy, nor jealousy amongst them.
 So Judas chose Eupolemus the son of John, the son of Jacob, and
Jason the son of Eleazar, and he sent them to Rome to make a league of
amity and confederacy with them.  And that they might take off from
them the yoke of the Grecians, for they saw that they oppressed the
kingdom of Israel with servitude.
 And they went to Rome, a very long journey, and they entered into
the senate house, and said:
 Judas Machabeus, and his brethren, and the people of the Jews have
sent us to you, to make alliance and peace with you, and that we may be
registered your confederates and friends.
 And the proposal was pleasing in their sight.
 And this is the copy of the writing that they wrote back again,
graven in tables of brass, and sent to Jerusalem, that it might be with
them there for a memorial of the peace and alliance.
 GOOD SUCCESS BE TO THE ROMANS, and to the people of the Jews, by
sea and by land for ever: and far be the sword and enemy from them.
 But if there come first any war upon the Romans, or any of their
confederates, in all their dominions:  The nation of the Jews shall
help them according as the time shall direct, with all their heart:
 Neither shall they give them, whilst they are fighting, or furnish
them with wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed good to
the Romans: and they shall obey their orders, without taking any thing
 In like manner also if war shall come first upon the nation of the
Jews, the Romans shall help them with all their heart, according as the
time shall permit them.  And there shall not be given to them that
come to their aid, either wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it
hath seemed good to the Romans: and they shall observe their orders
 According to these articles did the Romans covenant with the
people of the Jews.
 And if after this one party or the other shall have a mind to add
to these articles, or take away anything, they may do it at their
pleasure: and whatsoever they shall add, or take away, shall be
 Moreover concerning the evils that Demetrius the king hath done
against them, we have written to him, saying: Why hast thou made thy
yoke heavy upon our friends, and allies, the Jews?  If therefore
they come again to us complaining of thee, we will do them justice, and
will make war against thee by sea and land.
verses 1-73 have been
omitted from the Mass readings.
 In the mean time when Demetrius
heard that Nicanor and his army
were fallen in battle, he sent again Bacchides and Alcimus into Judea;
and the right wing of his army with them.  And they took the road
that leadeth to Galgal, and they camped in Masaloth, which is in
Arabella: and they made themselves masters of it, and slew many people.
 In the first month of the hundred and fifty-second year they
brought the army to Jerusalem:  And they arose, and went to Berea
with twenty thousand men, and two thousand horsemen.
 Now Judas had pitched his tents in Laisa, and three thousand chosen
men with him:  And they saw the multitude of the army that they were
many, and they were seized with great fear: and many withdrew
themselves out of the camp, and there remained of them no more than
eight hundred men.  And Judas saw that his army slipped away, and
the battle pressed upon him, and his heart was cast down: because he
had not time to gather them together, and he was discouraged.  Then
he said to them that remained:
Let us arise, and go against our enemies, if we may be able to fight
 But they dissuaded him, saying:
We shall not be able, but let us save our lives now, and return to our
brethren, and then we will fight against them: for we are but few.
 Then Judas said:
God forbid we should do this thing, and flee away from them: but if our
time be come, let us die manfully for our brethren, and let us not
stain our glory.
 And the army removed out of the camp, and they stood over against
them: and the horsemen were divided into two troops, and the slingers,
and the archers went before the army, and they that were in the front
were all men of valour.  And Bacchides was in the right wing, and
the legion drew near on two sides, and they sounded the trumpets: 
And they also were on Judas' side, even they also cried out, and the
earth shook at the noise of the armies: and the battle was fought from
morning even unto the evening.
 And Judas perceived that the stronger part of the army of
Bacchides was on the right side, and all the stout of heart came
together with him:  And the right wing was discomfited by them, and
he pursued them even to the mount Azotus.  And they that were in
the left wing saw that the right wing was discomfited, and they
followed after Judas, and them that were with him, at their back: 
And the battle was hard fought, and there fell many wounded of the one
side and of the other.  And Judas was slain, and the rest fled away.
 And Jonathan and Simon took Judas their brother, and buried him in
the sepulchre of their fathers in the city of Modin.  And all the
people of Israel bewailed him with great lamentation, and they mourned
for him many days.  And said: How is the mighty man fallen, that
saved the people of Israel!
 But the rest of the words of the wars of Judas, and of the noble
acts that he did, and of his greatness, are not written: for they were
 And it came to pass after the death of Judas, that the wicked
began to put forth their heads in all the confines of Israel, and all
the workers of iniquity rose up.  In those days there was a very
great famine, and they and all their country yielded to Bacchides. 
And Bacchides chose the wicked men, and made them lords of the country:
 And they sought out, and made diligent search after the friends of
Judas, and brought them to Bacchides, and he took vengeance of them,
and abused them.
 And there was a great tribulation in Israel, such as was not since
the day, that there was no prophet seen in Israel.
 And all the friends of Judas came together, and said to Jonathan:
 Since thy brother Judas died, there is not a man like him to go
forth against our enemies, Bacchides, and them that are the enemies of
our nation.  Now therefore we have chosen thee this day to be our
prince, and captain in his stead to fight our battles.
 So Jonathan took upon him the government at that time, and rose up
in the place of Judas his brother.  And Bacchides had knowledge of
it, and sought to kill him.  And Jonathan and Simon his brother,
knew it, and all that were with them: and they fled into the desert of
Thecua, and they pitched by the water of the lake of Asphar,
 And Bacchides understood it, and he came himself with all his army
over the Jordan on the sabbath day.
 And Jonathan sent his brother a captain of the people, to desire
the Nabutheans his friends, that they would lend them their equipage,
which was copious.  And the children of Jambri came forth out of
Madaba, and took John, and all that he had, and went away with them.
 After this it was told Jonathan, and Simon his brother, that the
children of Jambri made a great marriage, and were bringing the bride
out of Madaba, the daughter of one of the great princes of Chanaan,
with great pomp.
 And the remembered the blood of John their brother: and they went
up, and hid themselves under the covert of the mountain.  And they
lifted up their eyes, and saw: and behold a tumult, and great
preparation: and the bridegroom came forth, and his friends, and his
brethren to meet them with timbrels, and musical instruments, and many
weapons.  And they rose up against them from the place where they
lay in ambush, and slew them, and there fell many wounded, and the rest
fled into the mountains, and they took all their spoils:  And the
marriage was turned into mourning, and the noise of their musical
instruments into lamentation.  And they took revenge for the blood
of their brother: and they returned to the bank of the Jordan.
 And Bacchides heard it, and he came on the sabbath day even to the
bank of the Jordan with a great power.  And Jonathan said to his
Let us arise, and fight against our enemies: for it is not now as
yesterday, and the day before.  And behold the battle is before us,
and the water of the Jordan on this side and on that side, and banks,
and marshes, and woods: and there is no place for us to turn aside.
 Now therefore cry ye to heaven, that ye may be delivered from the
hand of your enemies. And they joined battle.
 And Jonathan stretched forth his hand to strike Bacchides, but he
turned away from him backwards.  And Jonathan, and they that were
with him leaped into the Jordan, and swam over the Jordan to them: 
And there fell of Bacchides' side that day a thousand men: and they
returned to Jerusalem,  And they built strong cities in Judea, the
fortress that was in Jericho, and in Ammaus, and in Bethoron, and in
Bethel, and Thamnata, and Phara, and Thopo, with high walls, and gates,
and bars.  And he placed garrisons in them, that they might wage
war against Israel:
 And he fortified the city of Bethsura, and Gazara, and the castle,
and set garrisons in them, and provisions of victuals:  And he took
the sons of the chief men of the country for hostages, and put them in
the castle in Jerusalem in custody.
 Now in the year one hundred and fifty-three, the second month,
Alcimus commanded the walls of the inner court of the sanctuary to be
thrown down, and the works of the prophets to be destroyed: and he
began to be destroyed: and he began to destroy.  At that time
Alcimus was struck: and his works were hindered, and his mouth was
stopped, and he was taken with a palsy, so that he could no more speak
a word, nor give order concerning his house.  And Alcimus died at
that time in great torment.
 And Bacchides saw that Alcimus was dead: and he returned to the
king, and the land was quiet for two years.
 And all the wicked held a council, saying:
Behold Jonathan, and they that are with him, dwell at ease, and without
fear: now therefore let us bring Bacchides hither, and he shall take
them all in one night.
 So they went, and gave him counsel.
 And he arose to come with a great army: and he sent secretly
letters to his adherents that were in Judea, to seize upon Jonathan,
and them that were with him: but they could not, for their design was
known to them.  And he apprehended of the men of the country, that
were the principal authors of the mischief, fifty men, and slew them.
 And Jonathan, and Simon, and they that were with him retired into
Bethbessen, which is in the desert: and he repaired the breaches
thereof, and they fortified it.  And when Bacchides knew it, he
gathered together all his multitude: and sent word to them that were of
Judea.  And he came, and camped above Bethbessen, and fought
against it many days, and made engines.
 But Jonathan left his brother Simon in the city, and went forth
into the country: and came with a number of men.  And struck
Odares, and his brethren, and the children of Phaseron in their tents,
and he began to slay, and to increase in forces.  But Simon and
they that were with him, sallied out of the city, and burnt the
engines.  And they fought against Bacchides, and he was discomfited
by them: and they afflicted him exceedingly, for his counsel, and his
enterprise was in vain.  And he was angry with the wicked men that
had given him counsel to come into their country, and he slew many of
them: and he purposed to return with the rest into their country.
 And Jonathan had knowledge of it, and he sent ambassadors to him
to make peace with him, and to restore to him the prisoners.  And
he accepted it willingly, and did according to his words, and swore
that he would do him no harm all the days of his life.  And he
restored to him the prisoners which he before had taken out of the land
of Juda: and he returned and went away into his own country, and he
came no more into their borders.
 So the sword ceased from Israel: and Jonathan dwelt in Machmas,
and Jonathan began there to judge the people, and he destroyed the
wicked out of Israel.
verses 1-89 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now in the hundred and sixtieth
year Alexander the son of
Antiochus, surnamed the Illustrious, came up and took Ptolemais, and
they received him, and he reigned there.
 And king Demetrius heard of it, and gathered together an exceeding
great army, and went forth against him to fight.  And Demetrius sent
a letter to Jonathan with peaceable words, to magnify him.  For he
Let us first make a peace with him, before he make one with Alexander
against us.  For he will remember all the evils that we have done
against him, and against his brother, and against his nation.
 And he gave him authority to gather together an army, and to make
arms, and that he should be his confederate: and the hostages that were
in the castle, he commanded to be delivered to him.
 And Jonathan came to Jerusalem, and read the letters in the hearing
of all the people, and of them that were in the castle.  And they
were struck with great fear, because they heard that the king had given
him authority to gather together an army.  And the hostages were
delivered to Jonathan, and he restored them to their parents.  And
Jonathan dwelt in Jerusalem, and began to build, and to repair the
city.  And he ordered workmen to build the walls, and mount Sion
round about with square stones for fortification: and so they did.
 And the strangers that were in the strong holds, which Bacchides
had built, fled away.  And every man left his place, and departed
into his own country:  Only in Bethsura there remained some of
them, that had forsaken the law, and the commandments of God: for this
was a place of refuge for them.
 And king Alexander heard of the promises that Demetrius had made
Jonathan: and they told him of the battles, and the worthy acts that
he, and his brethren had done, and the labours that they had endured.
 And he said:
Shall we find such another man? now therefore we will make him our
friend and our confederate.
 So he wrote a letter, and sent it to him according to these words,
 King Alexander to his brother Jonathan, greeting.  We have
heard of thee, that thou art a man of great power, and fit to be our
friend:  Now therefore we make thee this day high priest of thy
nation, and that thou be called the king's friend, (and he sent him a
purple robe, and a crown of gold,) and that thou be of one mind with us
in our affairs, and keep friendship with us.
 Then Jonathan put on the holy vestment in the seventh month, in
the year one hundred and threescore, at the feast day of the
tabernacles: and he gathered together an army, and made a great number
 And Demetrius heard these words, and was exceeding sorry, and said:
 What is this that we have done, that Alexander hath prevented us
to gain the friendship of the Jews to strengthen himself?  I also
will write to them words of request, and offer dignities, and gifts:
that they may be with me to aid me.
 And he wrote to them in these words:
King Demetrius to the nation of the Jews, greeting.  Whereas you
have kept covenant with us, and have continued in our friendship, and
have not joined with our enemies, we have heard of it, and are glad.
 Wherefore now continue still to keep fidelity towards us, and we
will reward you with good things, for what you have done in our behalf.
 And we will remit to you many charges, and will give you gifts.
 And now I free you, and all the Jews from tributes, and I release
you from the customs of salt, and remit the crowns, and the thirds of
 And the half of the fruit of trees, which is my share, I leave to
you from this day forward, so that it shall not be taken of the land of
Juda, and of the three cities that are added thereto out of Samaria and
Galilee, from this day forth and for ever:  And let Jerusalem be
holy and free, with the borders thereof: and let the tenths, and
tributes be for itself.
 I yield up also the power of the castle that is in Jerusalem, and
I give it to the high priest, to place therein such men as he shall
choose to keep it.
 And every soul of the Jews that hath been carried captive from the
land of Juda in all my kingdom, I set at liberty freely, that all be
discharged from tributes even of their cattle.
 And I will that all the feasts, and the sabbaths, and the new
moons, and the days appointed, and three days before the solemn day,
and three days after the solemn day, be all days of immunity and
freedom, for all the Jews that are in my kingdom:  And no man shall
have power to do any thing against them, or to molest any of them, in
 And let there be enrolled in the king's army to the number of
thirty thousand of the Jews: and allowance shall be made them as is due
to all the king's forces, and certain of them shall be appointed to be
in the fortresses of the great king:  And some of them shall be set
over the affairs of the kingdom, that are of trust, and let the
governors be taken from among themselves, and let them walk in their
own laws, as the king hath commanded in the land of Juda.
 And the three cities that are added to Judea, out of the country
of Samaria, let them be accounted with Judea: that they may be under
one, and obey no other authority but that of the high priest:
 Ptolemais, and the confines thereof, I give as a free gift to the
holy places, that are in Jerusalem, for the necessary charges of the
holy things.  And I give every year fifteen thousand sicles of
silver out of the king's accounts, of what belongs to me:  And all
that is above, which they that were over the affairs the years before,
had not paid, from this time they shall give it to the works of the
house.  Moreover the five thousand sicles of silver which they
received from the account of the holy places, every year, shall also
belong to the priests that execute the ministry.  And whosoever
shall flee into the temple that is in Jerusalem, and in all the borders
thereof, being indebted to the king for any matter, let them be set at
liberty, and all that they have in my kingdom, let them have it free.
 For the building also, or repairing the works of the holy places,
the charges shall be given out of the king's revenues:
 For the building also of the walls of Jerusalem, and the
fortifying thereof round about, the charges shall be given out of the
king's account, as also for the building of the walls in Judea.
 Now when Jonathan, and the people heard these words, they gave no
credit to them nor received them: because they remembered the great
evil that he had done in Israel, for he had afflicted them exceedingly.
 And their inclinations were towards Alexander, because he had been
the chief promoter of peace in their regard, and him they always helped.
 And king Alexander gathered together a great army, and moved his
camp near to Demetrius.  And the two kings joined battle, and the
army of Demetrius fled away, and Alexander pursued after him, and
pressed them close.  And the battle was hard fought till the sun
went down: and Demetrius was slain that day.
 And Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee king of Egypt, with
words to this effect, saying:
 Forasmuch as I am returned into my kingdom, and am set in the
throne of my ancestors and have gotten the dominion, and have
overthrown Demetrius, and possessed our country,  And have joined
battle with him, and both he and his army have been destroyed by us,
and we are placed in the throne of his kingdom:  Now therefore let
us make friendship one with another: and give me now thy daughter to
wife, and I will be thy son in law, and I will give both thee and her
gifts worthy of thee.
 And king Ptolemee answered, saying:
Happy is the day wherein thou didst return to the land of thy fathers,
and sattest in the throne of their kingdom.  And now I will do to
thee as thou hast written: but meet me at Ptolemais, that we may see
one another, and I may give her to thee as thou hast said.
 So Ptolemee went out of Egypt, with Cleopatra his daughter, and he
came to Ptolemais in the hundred and sixty-second year.  And king
Alexander met him, and he gave him his daughter Cleopatra: and he
celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais, with great glory, after the
manner of kings.
 And king Alexander wrote to Jonathan, that he should come and meet
him.  And he went honourably to Ptolemais, and he met there the two
kings, and he gave them much silver, and gold, and presents: and he
found favour in their sight.
 And some pestilent men of Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled
themselves against him to accuse him: and the king gave no heed to
them.  And he commanded that Jonathan's garments should be taken
off, and that he should be clothed with purple: and they did so. And
the king made him sit by himself.  And he said to his princes:
Go out with him into the midst of the city, and make proclamation, that
no man complain against him of any matter, and that no man trouble him
for any manner of cause.
 So when his accusers saw his glory proclaimed, and him clothed
with purple, they all fled away.
 And the king magnified him, and enrolled him amongst his chief
friends, and made him governor and partaker of his dominion.  And
Jonathan returned into Jerusalem with peace and joy.
 In the year one hundred and sixty-five Demetrius the son of
Demetrius came from Crete into the land of his fathers.  And king
Alexander heard of it, and was much troubled, and returned to Antioch.
 And king Demetrius made Apollonius his general, who was governor
of Celesyria: and he gathered together a great army, and came to
Jamnia: and he sent to Jonathan the high priest,  Saying:
Thou alone standest against us, and I am laughed at, and reproached,
because thou shewest thy power against us in the mountains.  Now
therefore if thou trustest in thy forces, come down to us into the
plain, and there let us try one another: for with me is the strength of
war.  Ask, and learn who I am, and the rest that help me, who also
say that your foot cannot stand before our face, for thy fathers have
twice been put to flight in their own land:  And now how wilt thou
be able to abide the horsemen, and so great an army in the plain, where
there is no stone, nor rock, nor place to flee to?
 Now when Jonathan heard the words of Apollonius, he was moved in
his mind: and he chose ten thousand men, and went out of Jerusalem, and
Simon his brother met him to help him.  And they pitched their
tents near Joppe, but they shut him out of the city: because a garrison
of Apollonius was in Joppe, and he laid siege to it.  And they that
were in the city being affrighted, opened the gates to him: so Jonathan
 And Apollonius heard of it, and he took three thousand horsemen,
and a great army.
 And he went to Azotus as one that was making a journey, and
immediately he went forth into the plain: because he had a great number
of horsemen, and he trusted in them. And Jonathan followed after him to
Azotus, and they joined battle.  And Apollonius left privately in
the camp a thousand horsemen behind them.  And Jonathan knew that
there was an ambush behind him, and they surrounded his army, and cast
darts at the people from morning till evening.  But the people
stood still, as Jonathan had commanded them: and so their horses were
fatigued.  Then Simon drew forth his army, and attacked the legion:
for the horsemen were wearied: and they were discomfited by him, and
fled.  And they that were scattered about the plain, fled into
Azotus, and went into Bethdagon their idol's temple, there to save
themselves.  But Jonathan set fire to Azotus, and the cities that
were around it, and took the spoils of them, and the temple of Dagon:
and all them that were fled into it, he burnt with fire.  So they
that were slain by the sword, with them that were burnt, were almost
eight thousand men.
 And Jonathan removed his army from thence, and camped against
Ascalon: and they went out of the city to meet him with great honour.
 And Jonathan returned into Jerusalem with his people, having many
 And it came to pass: When Alexander the king heard these words,
that he honoured Jonathan yet more.  And he sent him a buckle of
gold, as the custom is, to be given to such as are of the royal blood.
And he gave him Accaron and all the borders thereof in possession.
verses 1-74 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And the king of Egypt gathered
together an army, like the sand that
lieth upon the sea shore, and many ships: and he sought to get the
kingdom of Alexander by deceit, and join it to his own kingdom.  And
he went out into Syria with peaceable words, and they opened to him the
cities, and met him: for king Alexander had ordered them to go forth to
meet him, because he was his father in law.  Now when Ptolemee
entered into the cities, he put garrisons of soldiers in every city.
 And when he came near to Azotus, they shewed him the temple of
Dagon that was burnt with fire, and Azotus, and the suburbs thereof
that were destroyed, and the bodies that were cast abroad, and the
graves of them that were slain in the battle, which they had made near
the way.  And they told the king that Jonathan had done these
things, to make him odious: but the king held his peace.
 And Jonathan came to meet the king at Joppe with glory, and they
saluted one another, and they lodged there.  And Jonathan went with
the king as far as the river, called Eleutherus: and he returned into
Jerusalem.  And king Ptolemee got the dominion of the cities by the
sea side, even to Seleucia, and he devised evil designs against
Alexander.  And he sent ambassadors to Demetrius, saying: Come, let
us make a league between us, and I will give thee my daughter whom
Alexander hath, and thou shalt reign in the kingdom of thy father. 
For I repent that I have given him my daughter: for he hath sought to
 And he slandered him, because he coveted his kingdom.
 And he took away his daughter, and gave her to Demetrius, and
alienated himself from Alexander, and his enmities were made manifest.
 And Ptolemee entered into Antioch, and set two crowns upon his
head, that of Egypt, and that of Asia.
 Now king Alexander was in Cilicia at that time: because they that
were in those places had rebelled.  And when Alexander heard of it,
he came to give him battle, and king Ptolemee brought forth his army,
and met him with a strong power, and put him to flight.  And
Alexander fled into Arabia, there to be protected: and king Ptolemee
 And Zabdiel the Arabian took off Alexander's head, and sent it to
Ptolemee.  And king Ptolemee died the third day after: and they
that were in the strong holds were destroyed by them that were within
 And Demetrius reigned in the hundred and sixty-seventh year.
 In those days Jonathan gathered together them that were in Judea,
to take the castle that was in Jerusalem: and they made many engines of
war against it.
 Then some wicked men that hated their own nation, went away to
king Demetrius, and told him that Jonathan was besieging the castle.
 And when he heard it, he was angry: and forthwith he came to
Ptolemais, and wrote to Jonathan, that he should not besiege the
castle, but should come to him in haste, and speak to him.
 But when Jonathan heard this, he bade them besiege it still: and
he chose some of the ancients of Israel, and of the priests, and put
himself in danger.  And he took gold, and silver, and raiment, and
many other presents, and went to the king to Ptolemais, and he found
favour in his sight.  And certain wicked men of his nation made
complaints against him.  And the king treated him as his
predecessor had done before: and he exalted him in the sight of all his
friends.  And he confirmed him in the high priesthood, and all the
honours he had before, and he made him the chief of his friends. 
And Jonathan requested of the king that he would make Judea free from
tribute, and the three governments, and Samaria, and the confines
thereof: and he promised him three hundred talents.  And the king
consented: and he wrote letters to Jonathan of all these things to this
 King Demetrius to his brother Jonathan, and to the nation of the
Jews, greeting.  We send you here a copy of the letter, which we
have written to Lasthenes our parent concerning you, that you might
know it.  King Demetrius to Lasthenes his parent, greeting.  We
have determined to do good to the nation of the Jews who are our
friends, and keep the things that are just with us, for their good will
which they bear towards us.  We have ratified therefore unto them
all the borders of Judea, and the three cities, Apherema, Lydda, and
Ramatha, which are added to Judea, out of Samaria, and all their
confines, to be set apart to all them that sacrifice in Jerusalem,
instead of the payments which the king received of them every year, and
for the fruits of the land, and of the trees.  And as for other
things that belonged to us of the tithes, and of the tributes, from
this time we discharge them of them: the saltpans also, and the crowns
that were presented to us.  We give all to them, and nothing hereof
shall be revoked from this time forth and for ever.  Now therefore
see that thou make a copy of these things, and let it be given to
Jonathan, and set upon the holy mountain, in a conspicuous place.
 And king Demetrius seeing that the land was quiet before him, and
nothing resisted him, sent away all his forces, every man to his own
place, except the foreign army, which he had drawn together from the
islands of the nations: so all the troops of his fathers hated him.
 Now there was one Tryphon who had been of Alexander's party
before: who seeing that all the army murmured against Demetrius, went
to Emalchuel the Arabian, who brought up Antiochus the son of
Alexander.  And he pressed him much to deliver him to him, that he
might be king in his father's place: and he told him all that Demetrius
had done, and how his soldiers hated him. And he remained there many
 And Jonathan sent to king Demetrius, desiring that he would cast
out them that were in the castle in Jerusalem, and those that were in
the strong holds: because they fought against Israel.  And
Demetrius sent to Jonathan, saying: I will not only do this for thee,
and for thy people, but I will greatly honour thee, and thy nation,
when opportunity shall serve.  Now therefore thou shalt do well if
thou send me men to help me: for all my army is gone from me.  And
Jonathan sent him three thousand valiant men to Antioch: and they came
to the king, and the king was very glad of their coming.
 And they that were of the city assembled themselves together, to
the number of a hundred and twenty thousand men, and would have killed
the king.  And the king fled into the palace, and they of the city
kept the passages of the city, and began to fight.  And the king
called the Jews to his assistance: and they came to him all at once,
and they all dispersed themselves through the city.  And they slew
in that day a hundred thousand men, and they set fire to the city, and
got many spoils that day, and delivered the king.
 And they that were of the city saw that the Jews had got the city
as they would: and they were discouraged in their minds, and cried to
the king, making supplication, and saying:
 Grant us peace, and let the Jews cease from assaulting us, and the
 And they threw down their arms, and made peace, and the Jews were
glorified in the sight of the king, and in the sight of all that were
in his realm, and were renowned throughout the kingdom, and returned to
Jerusalem with many spoils.
 So king Demetrius sat in the throne of his kingdom: and the land
was quiet before him.  And he falsified all whatsoever he had said,
and alienated himself from Jonathan, and did not reward him according
to the benefits he had received from him, but gave him great trouble.
 And after this Tryphon returned, and with him Antiochus the young
boy, who was made king, and put on the diadem.  And there assembled
unto him all the hands which Demetrius had sent away, and they fought
against Demetrius, who turned his back and fled.  And Tryphon took
the elephants, and made himself master of Antioch.
 And young Antiochus wrote to Jonathan, saying: I confirm thee in
the high priesthood, and I appoint thee ruler over the four cities, and
to be one of the king's friends.  And he sent him vessels of gold
for his service, and he gave him leave to drink in gold, and to be
clothed in purple, and to wear a golden buckle:  And he made his
brother Simon governor from the borders of Tyre even to the confines of
 Then Jonathan went forth and passed through the cities beyond the
river: and all the forces of Syria gathered themselves to him to help
him, and he came to Ascalon, and they met him honourably out of the
city.  And he went from thence to Gaza: and they that were in Gaza
shut him out: and he besieged it, and burnt all the suburbs round
about, and took the spoils.  And the men of Gaza made supplication
to Jonathan, and he gave them the right hand: and he took their sons
for hostages, and sent them to Jerusalem: and he went through the
country as far as Damascus.
 And Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come
treacherously to Cades, which is in Galilee, with a great army,
purposing to remove him from the affairs of the kingdom:  And he
went against them: but left his brother Simon in the country.  And
Simon encamped against Bethsura, and assaulted it many days, and shut
them up.  And they desired him to make peace, and he granted it
them: and he cast them out from thence, and took the city, and placed a
garrison in it.
 And Jonathan, and his army encamped by the water of Genesar, and
before it was light they were ready in the plain of Asor.  And
behold the army of the strangers met him in the plain, and they laid an
ambush for him in the mountains: but he went out against them.  And
they that lay in ambush arose out of their places, and joined battle.
 And all that were on Jonathan's side fled, and none was left of
them, but Mathathias the son of Absalom, and Judas the son of Calphi,
chief captain of the army.
 And Jonathan rent his garments, and cast earth upon his head, and
prayed.  And Jonathan turned again to them to battle, and he put
them to flight, and they fought.  And they of his part that fled
saw this, and they turned again to him, and they all with him pursued
the enemies even to Cades to their own camp, and they came even
thither.  And there fell of the aliens in that day three thousand
men: and Jonathan returned to Jerusalem.
verses 1-54 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And Jonathan saw that the time
served him, and he chose certain men
and sent them to Rome, to confirm and to renew the amity with them: 
And he sent letters to the Spartans, and to other places according to
the same form.
 And they went to Rome, and entered into the senate house, and said:
Jonathan the high priest, and the nation of the Jews have sent us to
renew the amity, and alliance as it was before.
 And they gave them letters to their governors in every place, to
conduct them into the land of Juda with peace.
 And this is a copy of the letters which Jonathan wrote to the
 Jonathan the high priest, and the ancients of the nation, and the
priests, and the rest of the people of the Jews, to the Spartans, their
 There were letters sent long ago to Onias the high priest from
Arius who reigned then among you, to signify that you are our brethren,
as the copy here underwritten doth specify.  And Onias received the
ambassador with honour: and received the letters wherein there was
mention made of the alliance, and amity.  We, though we needed none
of these things, having for our comfort the holy books that are in our
hands,  Chose rather to send to you to renew the brotherhood and
friendship, lest we should become strangers to you altogether: for
there is a long time passed since you sent to us.  We therefore at
all times without ceasing, both in our festivals, and other days,
wherein it is convenient, remember you in the sacrifices that we offer,
and in our observances, as it is meet, and becoming to remember
 And we rejoice at your glory.
 But we have had many troubles and wars on every side, and the
kings that are round about us, have fought against us.  But we
would not be troublesome to you, nor the rest of our allies and friends
in these wars.  For we have had help from heaven, and we have been
delivered, and our enemies are humbled.
 We have chosen therefore Numenius the son of Antiochus, and
Antipater the son of Jason, and have sent them to the Romans to renew
with them the former amity and alliance.  And we have commanded
them to go also to you, and to salute you, and to deliver you our
letters, concerning the renewing of our brotherhood.  And now you
shall do well to give us an answer hereto.
 And this is the copy of the letter which he had sent to Onias:
 Arius king of the Spartans to Onias the high priest, greeting.
 It is found in writing concerning the Spartans, and the Jews, that
they are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham.  And
now since this is come to our knowledge, you do well to write to us of
your prosperity.  And we also have written back to you: That our
cattle, and our possessions are yours: and yours, ours. We therefore
have commanded that these things should be told you.
 Now Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come again
with a greater army than before to fight against him.  So he went
out from Jerusalem, and met them in the land of Amath: for he gave them
no time to enter into his country.  And he sent spies into their
camp, and they came back and brought him word that they designed to
come upon them in the night.
 And when the sun was set, Jonathan commanded his men to watch, and
to be in arms all night long ready to fight, and he set sentinels round
about the camp.
 And the enemies heard that Jonathan and his men were ready for
battle, and they were struck with fear, and dread in their heart: and
they kindled fires in their camp.  But Jonathan and they that were
with him knew it not till the morning: for they saw the lights burning.
 And Jonathan pursued after them, but overtook them not: for they
had passed the river Eleutherus.  And Jonathan turned upon the
Arabians that are called Zabadeans: and he defeated them, and took the
spoils of them.  And he went forward, and came to Damascus, and
passed through all that country.
 Simon also went forth, and came as far as Ascalon, and the
neighbouring fortresses, and he turned aside to Joppe, and took
possession of it,  (For he heard that they designed to deliver the
hold to them that took part with Demetrius,) and he put a garrison
there to keep it.
 And Jonathan came back, and called together the ancients of the
people, and he took a resolution with them to build fortresses in
Judea,  And to build up walls in Jerusalem, and raise a mount
between the castle and the city, to separate it from the city, that so
it might have no communication, and that they might neither buy nor
 And they came together to build up the city: for the wall that was
upon the brook towards the east was broken down, and he repaired that
which is called Caphetetha:  And Simon built Adiada in Sephela, and
fortified it, and set up gates and bars.
 Now when Tryphon had conceived a design to make himself king of
Asia, and to take the crown, and to stretch out his hand against king
Antiochus:  Fearing lest Jonathan would not suffer him, but would
fight against him: he sought to seize upon him, and to kill him. So he
rose up and came to Bethsan.
 And Jonathan went out to meet him with forty thousand men chosen
for battle, and came to Bethsan.  Now when Tryphon saw that
Jonathan came with a great army, he durst not stretch forth his hand
against him,  But received him with honour, and commended him to
all his friends, and gave him presents: and he commanded his troops to
obey him, as himself.  And he said to Jonathan:
Why hast thou troubled all the people, whereas we have no war?  Now
therefore send them back to their own houses: and choose thee a few men
that may be with thee, and come with me to Ptolemais, and I will
deliver it to thee, and the rest of the strong holds, and the army, and
all that have any charge, and I will return and go away: for this is
the cause of my coming.
 And Jonathan believed him, and did as he said: and sent away his
army, and they departed into the land of Juda:  But he kept with
him three thousand men: of whom he sent two thousand into Galilee, and
one thousand went with him.  Now as soon as Jonathan entered into
Ptolemais, they of Ptolemais shut the gates of the city, and took him:
and all them that came in with him they slew with the sword.
 Then Tryphon sent an army and horsemen into Galilee, and into the
great plain to destroy all Jonathan's company.  But they, when they
understood that Jonathan and all that were with him were taken and
slain, encouraged one another, and went out ready for battle.  Then
they that had come after them, seeing that they stood for their lives,
returned back.  Whereupon they all came peaceably into the land of
Juda. And they bewailed Jonathan, and them that had been with him,
exceedingly: and Israel mourned with great lamentation.
 Then all the heathens that were round about them, sought to
destroy them. For they said:
 They have no prince, nor any to help them: now therefore let us
make war upon them, and take away the memory of them from amongst men.
verses 1-54 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Now Simon heard that Tryphon was
gathering together a very great
army, to invade the land of Juda, and to destroy it.  And seeing
that the people was in dread, and in fear, he went up to Jerusalem, and
assembled the people:  And exhorted them, saying:
You know what great battles I and my brethren, and the house of my
father, have fought for the laws, and the sanctuary, and the distresses
that we have seen:  By reason whereof all my brethren have lost
their lives for Israel's sake, and I am left alone.  And now far be
it from me to spare my life in any time of trouble: for I am not better
than my brethren.  I will avenge then my nation and the sanctuary,
and our children, and wives: for all the heathens are gathered together
to destroy us out of mere malice.
 And the spirit of the people was enkindled as soon as they heard
these words.  And they answered with a loud voice, saying:
Thou art our leader in the place of Judas, and Jonathan thy brother.
 Fight thou our battles, and we will do whatsoever thou shalt say to
 So gathering together all the men of war, he made haste to finish
all the walls of Jerusalem, and he fortified it round about.  And
he sent Jonathan the son of Absalom, and with him a new army into
Joppe, and he cast out them that were in it, and himself remained there.
 And Tryphon removed from Ptolemais with a great army, to invade
the land of Juda, and Jonathan was with him in custody.  But Simon
pitched in Addus, over against the plain.
 And when Tryphon understood that Simon was risen up in the place
of his brother Jonathan, and that he meant to join battle with him, he
sent messengers to him,  Saying:
We have detained thy brother Jonathan for the money that he owed in the
king's account, by reason of the affairs which he had the management
of.  But now send a hundred talents of silver, and his two sons for
hostages, that when he is set at liberty he may not revolt from us, and
we will release him.
 Now Simon knew that he spoke deceitfully to him, nevertheless he
ordered the money, and the children to be sent: lest he should bring
upon himself a great hatred of the people of Israel, who might have
 Because he sent not the money, and the children, therefore is he
 So he sent the children, and the hundred talents: and he lied, and
did not let Jonathan go.
 And after this Tryphon entered within the country, to destroy it:
and they went about by the way that leadeth to Ador: and Simon and his
army marched to every place whithersoever they went.  And they that
were in the castle, sent messengers to Tryphon, that he should make
haste to come through the desert, and send them victuals.  And
Tryphon made ready all his horsemen to come that night: but there fell
a very great snow, and he came not into the country of Galaad.  And
when he approached to Bascama, he slew Jonathan and his sons there.
 And Tryphon returned, and went into his own country.
 And Simon sent, and took the bones of Jonathan his brother, and
buried them in Modin, in the city of his fathers.  And all Israel
bewailed him with great lamentation: and they mourned for him many days.
 And Simon built over the sepulchre of his father and of his
brethren, a building lofty to the sight, of polished stone behind and
before:  And he set up seven pyramids one against another for his
father and his mother, and his four brethren:  And round about
these he set great pillars: and upon the pillars arms for a perpetual
memory: and by the arms ships carved, which might be seen by all that
sailed on the sea.  This is the sepulchre that he made in Modin
even unto this day.
 But Tryphon when he was upon a journey with the young king
Antiochus, treacherously slew him.  And he reigned in his place,
and put on the crown of Asia: and brought great evils upon the land.
 And Simon built up the strong holds of Judea, fortifying them with
high towers, and great walls, and gates, and bars: and he stored up
victuals in the fortresses.  And Simon chose men and sent to king
Demetrius, to the end that he should grant an immunity to the land: for
all that Tryphon did was to spoil.  And king Demetrius in answer to
this request, wrote a letter in this manner:
 King Demetrius to Simon the high priest, and friend of kings, and
to the ancients, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting.
 The golden crown, and the palm, which you sent, we have received:
and we are ready to make a firm peace with you, and to write to the
king's chief officers to release you the things that we have released.
 For all that we have decreed in your favour, shall stand in force.
The strong holds that you have built, shall be your own.
 And as for any oversight or fault committed unto this day, we
forgive it, and the crown which you owed: and if any other thing were
taxed in Jerusalem, now let it not be taxed.
 And if any of you be fit to be enrolled among ours, let them be
enrolled, and let there be peace between us.
 In the year one hundred and seventy the yoke of the Gentiles was
taken off from Israel.  And the people of Israel began to write in
the instruments, and public records, The first year under Simon the
high priest, the great captain and prince of the Jews.
 In those days Simon besieged Gaza, and camped round about it, and
he made engines, and set them to the city, and he struck one tower, and
took it.  And they that were within the engine leaped into the
city: and there was a great uproar in the city.  And they that were
in the city went up with their wives and children upon the wall, with
their garments rent, and they cried with a loud voice, beseeching Simon
to grant them peace.
 And they said: Deal not with us according to our evil deeds, but
according to thy mercy.
 And Simon being moved, did not destroy them: but yet he cast them
out of the city, and cleansed the houses wherein there had been idols,
and then he entered into it with hymns, blessing the Lord.  And
having cast out of it all uncleanness, he placed in it men that should
observe the law: and he fortified it, and made it his habitation.
 But they that were in the castle of Jerusalem were hindered from
going out and coming into the country, and from buying and selling: and
they were straitened with hunger, and many of them perished through
famine.  And they cried to Simon for peace, and he granted it to
them: and he cast them out from thence, and cleansed the castle from
 And they entered into it the three and twentieth day of the second
month, in the year one hundred and seventy-one, with thanksgiving, and
branches of palm trees, and harps, and cymbals, and psalteries, and
hymns, and canticles, because the great enemy was destroyed out of
Israel.  And he ordained that these days should be kept every year
with gladness.  And he fortified the mountain of the temple that
was near the castle, and he dwelt there himself, and they that were
with him.  And Simon saw that John his son was a valiant man for
war: and he made him captain of all the forces: and he dwelt in Gazara.
verses 1-49 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 In the year one hundred and
seventy-two, king Demetrius assembled
his army, and went into Media to get him succours to fight against
 And Arsaces the king of Persia and Media heard that Demetrius was
entered within his borders, and he sent one of his princes to take him
alive, and bring him to him.  And he went and defeated the army of
Demetrius: and took him, and brought him to Arsaces, and he put him
 And all the land of Juda was at rest all the days of Simon, and he
sought the good of his nation: and his power, and his glory pleased
them well all his days.
 And with all his glory he took Joppe for a haven, and made an
entrance to the isles of the sea.
 And he enlarged the bounds of his nation, and made himself master
of the country.
 And he gathered together a great number of captives, and had the
dominion of Gazara, and of Bethsura, and of the castle: and took away
all uncleanness out of it and there was none that resisted him.
 And every man tilled his land with peace: and the land of Juda
yielded her increase, and the trees of the fields their fruit.
 The ancient men sat all in the streets, and treated together of the
good things of the land, and the young men put on them glory, and the
robes of war.
 And he provided victuals for the cities, and he appointed that
they should be furnished with ammunition, so that the fame of his glory
was renowned even to the end of the earth.
 He made peace in the land, and Israel rejoiced with great joy.
 And every man sat under his vine, and under his fig tree: and
there was none to make them afraid.
 There was none left in the land to fight against them: kings were
discomfited in those days.
 And he strengthened all those of his people that were brought low,
and he sought the law, and took away every unjust and wicked man.
 He glorified the sanctuary, and multiplied the vessels of the holy
 And it was heard at Rome, and as far as Sparta, that Jonathan was
dead: and they were very sorry.  But when they heard that Simon his
brother was made high priest in his place, and was possessed of all the
country, and the cities therein:  They wrote to him in tables of
brass, to renew the friendship and alliance which they had made with
Judas, and with Jonathan his brethren.  And they were read before
the assembly in Jerusalem. And this is the copy of the letters that the
 The princes and the cities of the Spartans to Simon the high
priest, and to the ancients, and the priests, and the rest of the
people of the Jews their brethren, greeting.
 The ambassadors that were sent to our people, have told us of your
glory, and honour, and joy: and we rejoice at their coming.  And we
registered what was said by them in the councils of the people in this
manner: Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason,
ambassadors of the Jews, came to us to renew the former friendship with
us.  And it pleased the people to receive the men honourably, and
to put a copy of their words in the public records, to be a memorial to
the people of the Spartans. And we have written a copy of them to Simon
the high priest.
 And after this Simon sent Numenius to Rome, with a great shield of
gold the weight of a thousand pounds, to confirm the league with them.
And when the people of Rome had heard  These words, they said:
What thanks shall we give to Simon, and his sons?  For he hath
restored his brethren, and hath driven away in fight the enemies of
Israel from them:
and they decreed him liberty, and registered it in tables of brass, and
set it upon pillars in mount Sion.
 And this is a copy of the writing:
The eighteenth day of the month Elul, in the year one hundred and
seventy-two, being the third year under Simon the high priest at
Asaramel,  In a great assembly of the priests, and of the people,
and the princes of the nation, and the ancients of the country, these
things were notified: Forasmuch as there have often been wars in our
country,  And Simon the son of Mathathias of the children of Jarib,
and his brethren have put themselves in danger, and have resisted the
enemies of their nation, for the maintenance of their holy places, and
the law: and have raised their nation to great glory.  And Jonathan
gathered together his nation, and was made their high priest, and he
was laid to his people.  And their enemies desired to tread down
and destroy their country, and to stretch forth their hands against
their holy places.  Then Simon resisted and fought for his nation,
and laid out much of his money, and armed the valiant men of his
nation, and gave them wages:  And he fortified the cities of Judea,
and Bethsura that lieth in the borders of Judea, where the armour of
the enemies was before: and he placed there a garrison of Jews. 
And he fortified Joppe which lieth by the sea: and Gazara, which
bordereth upon Azotus, wherein the enemies dwelt before, and he placed
Jews here: and furnished them with all things convenient for their
reparation.  And the people seeing the acts of Simon, and to what
glory he meant to bring his nation, made him their prince, and high
priest, because he had done all these things, and for the justice, and
faith, which he kept to his nation, and for that he sought by all means
to advance his people.  And in his days things prospered in his
hands, so that the heathens were taken away out of their country, and
they also that were in the city of David in Jerusalem in the castle,
out of which they issued forth, and profaned all places round about the
sanctuary, and did much evil to its purity.  And he placed therein
Jews for the defence of the country, and of the city, and he raised up
the walls of Jerusalem.  And king Demetrius confirmed him in the
high priesthood.  According to these things he made him his friend,
and glorified him with great glory.  For he had heard that the
Romans had called the Jews their friends, and confederates, and
brethren, and that they had received Simon's ambassadors with honour:
 And that the Jews, and their priests, had consented that he should
be their prince, and high priest for ever, till there should arise a
faithful prophet:  And that he should be chief over them, and that
he should have the charge of the sanctuary, and that he should appoint
rulers over their works, and over the country, and over the armour, and
over the strong holds.  And that he should have care of the holy
places: and that he should be obeyed by all, and that all the writings
in the country should be made in his name: and that he should be
clothed with purple, and gold:  And that it should not be lawful
for any of the people, or of the priests, to disannul any of these
things, or to gainsay his words, or to call together an assembly in the
country without him: or to be clothed with purple, or to wear a buckle
of gold:  And whosoever shall do otherwise, or shall make void any
of these things shall be punished.  And it pleased all the people
to establish Simon, and to do according to these words.  And Simon
accepted thereof, and was well pleased to execute the office of the
high priesthood, and to be captain, and prince of the nation of the
Jews, and of the priests, and to be chief over all.  And they
commanded that this writing should be put in tables of brass, and that
they should be set up within the compass of the sanctuary, in a
conspicuous place:  And that a copy thereof should be put in the
treasury, that Simon and his sons may have it.
verses 1-41 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 And king Antiochus the son of
Demetrius sent letters from the isles
of the sea to Simon the priest, and prince of the nation of the Jews,
and to all the people:  And the contents were these:
King Antiochus to Simon the high priest, and to the nation of the Jews,
 Forasmuch as certain pestilent men have usurped the kingdom of our
fathers, and my purpose is to challenge the kingdom, and to restore it
to its former estate: and I have chosen a great army, and have built
ships of war.  And I design to go through the country that I may
take revenge of them that have destroyed our country, and that have
made many cities desolate in my realm.  Now therefore I confirm unto
thee all the oblations which all the kings before me remitted to thee,
and what other gifts soever they remitted to thee:  And I give thee
leave to coin thy own money in thy country:  And let Jerusalem be
holy and free, and all the armour that hath been made, and the
fortresses which thou hast built, and which thou keepest in thy hands,
let them remain to thee.  And all that is due to the king, and what
should be the king's hereafter, from this present and for ever, is
forgiven thee.  And when we shall have recovered our kingdom, we
will glorify thee, and thy nation, and the temple with great glory, so
that your glory shall be made manifest in all the earth.
 In the year one hundred and seventy-four Antiochus entered into
the land of his fathers, and all the forces assembled to him, so that
few were left with Tryphon.
 And king Antiochus pursued after him, and he fled along by the sea
coast and came to Dora.  For he perceived that evils were gathered
together upon him, and his troops had forsaken him.
 And Antiochus camped above Dora with a hundred and twenty thousand
men of war, and eight thousand horsemen:  And he invested the city,
and the ships drew near by sea: and they annoyed the city by land, and
by sea, and suffered none to come in, or to go out.  And Numenius,
and they that had been with him, came from the city of Rome, having
letters written to the kings, and countries, the contents whereof were
 Lucius the consul of the Romans, to king Ptolemee, greeting.
 The ambassadors of the Jews our friends came to us, to renew the
former friendship and alliance, being sent from Simon the high priest,
and the people of the Jews.  And they brought also a shield of gold
of a thousand pounds.
 It hath seemed good therefore to us to write to the kings, and
countries, that they should do them no harm, nor fight against them,
their cities, or countries: and that they should give no aid to them
that fight against them.
 And it hath seemed good to us to receive the shield of them.
 If therefore any pestilent men are fled out of their country to
you, deliver them to Simon the high priest, that he may punish them
according to their law.
 These same things were written to king Demetrius, and to Attalus,
and to Ariarathes, and to Arsaces,  And to all the countries; and
to Lampsacus, and to the Spartans, and to Delus, and Myndus, and
Sicyon, and Caria, and Samus, and Pamphylia, and Lycia, and
Alicarnassus, and Cos, and Side, and Aradus, and Rhodes, and Phaselis,
and Gortyna, and Gnidus, and Cyprus, and Cyrene.
 And they wrote a copy thereof to Simon the high priest, and to the
people of the Jews.
 But king Antiochus moved his camp to Dora the second time,
assaulting it continually, and making engines: and shut up Tryphon,
that he could not go out.  And Simon sent to him two thousand
chosen men to aid him, silver also, and gold, and abundance of
furniture.  And he would not receive them, but broke all the
covenant that he had made with him before, and alienated himself from
him.  And he sent to him Athenobius one of his friends, to treat
with him, saying:
You hold Joppe, and Gazara, and the castle that is in Jerusalem, which
are cities of my kingdom:  Their borders you have wasted, and you
have made great havock in the land, and have got the dominion of many
places in my kingdom.  Now therefore deliver up the cities that you
have taken, and the tributes of the places whereof you have gotten the
dominion without the borders of Judea.  But if not, give me for
them five hundred talents of silver, and for the havock that you have
made, and the tributes of the cities other five hundred talents: or
else we will come and fight against you.
 So Athenobius the king's friend came to Jerusalem, and saw the
glory of Simon and his magnificence in gold, and silver, and his great
equipage, and he was astonished, and told him the king's words. 
And Simon answered him, and said to him:
We have neither taken other men's land, neither do we hold that which
is other men's: but the inheritance of our fathers, which was for some
time unjustly possessed by our enemies.  But we having opportunity
claim the inheritance of our fathers.  And as to thy complaints
concerning Joppe and Gazara, they did great harm to the people, and to
our country: yet for these we will give a hundred talents. And
Athenobius answered him not a word:
 But returning in a rage to the king, made report to him of these
words, and of the glory of Simon, and of all that he had seen, and the
king was exceeding angry.
 And Tryphon fled away by ship to Orthosias.
 And the king appointed Cendebeus captain of the sea coast, and
gave him an army of footmen and horsemen.  And he commanded him to
march with his army towards Judea: and he commanded him to build up
Gedor, and to fortify the gates of the city, and to war against the
people. But the king himself pursued after Tryphon.
 And Cendebeus came to Jamnia, and began to provoke the people, and
to ravage Judea, and to take the people prisoners, and to kill, and to
build Gedor.  And he placed there horsemen, and an army: that they
might issue forth, and make incursions upon the ways of Judea, as the
king had commanded him.
verses 1-24 have
been omitted from the Mass readings.
 Then John came up from Gazara, and
told Simon his father what
Cendebeus had done against their people.  And Simon called his two
eldest sons, Judas and John, and said to them:
I and my brethren, and my father's house, have fought against the
enemies of Israel from our youth even to this day: and things have
prospered so well in our hands that we have delivered Israel
oftentimes.  And now I am old, but be you instead of me, and my
brethren, and go out, and fight for our nation: and the help from
heaven be with you.
 Then he chose out of the country twenty thousand fighting men, and
horsemen, and they went forth against Cendebeus: and they rested in
Modin.  And they arose in the morning, and went into the plain: and
behold a very great army of footmen and horsemen came against them, and
there was a running river between them.
 And he and his people pitched their camp over against them, and he
saw that the people were afraid to go over the river, so he went over
first: then the men seeing him, passed over after him.  And he
divided the people, and set the horsemen in the midst of the footmen:
but the horsemen of the enemies were very numerous.  And they
sounded the holy trumpets: and Cendebeus and his army were put to
flight: and there fell many of them wounded, and the rest fled into the
strong hold.  At that time Judas John's brother was wounded: but
John pursued after them, till he came to Cedron, which he had built:
 And they fled even to the towers that were in the fields of
Azotus, and he burnt them with fire. And there fell of them two
thousand men, and he returned into Judea in peace.
 Now Ptolemee the son of Abobus was appointed captain in the plain
of Jericho, and he had abundance of silver and gold,  For he was
son in law of the high priest.  And his heart was lifted up, and he
designed to make himself master of the country, and he purposed
treachery against Simon, and his sons, to destroy them.  Now Simon,
as he was going through the cities that were in the country of Judea,
and taking care for the good ordering of them, went down to Jericho, he
and Mathathias and Judas his sons, in the year one hundred and
seventy-seven, the eleventh month: the same is the month Sabath. 
And the son of Abobus received them deceitfully into a little fortress,
that is called Doch which he had built: and he made them a great feast,
and hid men there.  And when Simon and his sons had drunk
plentifully, Ptolemee and his men rose up and took their weapons, and
entered into the banqueting place, and slew him, and his two sons, and
some of his servants.
 And he committed a great treachery in Israel, and rendered evil
 And Ptolemee wrote these things and sent to the king that he
should send him an army to aid him, and he would deliver him the
country, and their cities, and tributes.  And he sent others to
Gazara to kill John: and to the tribunes he sent letters to come to
him, and that he would give them silver, and gold, and gifts.  And
he sent others to take Jerusalem, and the mountain of the temple. 
Now one running before, told John in Gazara, that his father and his
brethren were slain, and that he hath sent men to kill thee also. 
But when he heard it he was exceedingly afraid: and he apprehended the
men that came to kill him, and he put them to death: for he knew that
they sought to take him away.
 And as concerning the rest of the acts of John, and his wars, and
the worthy deeds, which he bravely achieved, and the building of the
walls, which he made, and the things that he did:  Behold these are
written in the book of the days of his priesthood, from the time he was
made high priest after his father.