St. Nicholas I : 858-867 A.D.
105. Born in Rome. Elected April 24, 858 - died November 13, 867
After serious disagreement with the Emperor Ludovic II, he co-operated with him to set up an army against the Saracens.
He strongly defended the freedom of the Church against Photius.
He introduced the Assumption Day celebration on August 15th.
Nicholas I considered the ring as a symbol of the consecrated union with the Church, the use of the wedding symbol of the consecrated union with the Church, the use of the wedding ring dated back to the period; in the past, Greek and Roman women used to wear a smooth ring as a talisman.
During his pontificate, the Bulgarians were converted to Christianity: a mission was sent to the court of King Boris I.
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes.
His Pontificate lasted 9 years and 7 months.
Hadrian II :867-872 A.D.
106. Born in Rome. Elected December 14, 867 - died December 14, 872.
It is worth mentioning the crowning of Alfred the Great, King of England (the first English King to be consecrated in Rome).John VIII : 872-882 A.D.
He tried to settle the ever more serious disagreement among Catholic peoples.
He called the 8th Ecumenical Council.
He ordered that the monks who were consecrated Bishops should continue to wear the habit of their religious order.
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. His pontificate lasted 5 years.
107. Born in Rome. Elected December 13, 872 - died December 16, 882
He faced the Saracens with only the help of Roman inhabitants, defeating them in Terracian.Marinus I : 882-884 A.D.
After the crowning, Charles the Gross refused to provide the help he had promised and the Pope was defeated by the Arabs; he was forced to pay a heavy tribute.
He defined as impious all those who stole something from sacred places.
Baronius and others write that he was the first to publish the rights and the pre-eminence of Cardinals.
He died 10 years and 2 days after his election. He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes
108. Born in Gallese (Rome). Elected December 16, 882 - died May 15, 884
He firmly fostered Basil, The Eastern Emperor, to take action against schismatics.
He supposedly died from poisoning after having tried to settle the disputes affecting Italy.
He sent Formoso back to Porto, from where he had been exiled, and gave him his permission to come back to Rome.
In Nonantola he met the Emperor Charles the Gross, obtaining his help against Guido of Spoleto, an enemy of the Church.
At the request of Alfred of England, he exempted the "Schola Anglorum" of Rome from the payment of charges or taxes.
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. He governed the Church for 1 year and 5 months.
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