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The Papacy - A Historical Perspective

1118-1143 A.D.

GELASIUS II : 1118 -1119 A.D.

161. Born in Gaeta. Elected March 10, 1118 - died January 28,1119.

He was assailed in the Church of the Lateran and was imprisoned by the rebel Cencio Frangipane.

After having been freed by Genoese mariners he looked for shelter in Gaeta, from where he came back to Rome dressed as a pilgrim.

He moved to Cluny as a consequence of a turmoil of Roman nobles and never came back to Rome.

People say that at the point of death, he took the pontifical insignia off, put the frock on and wanted to die on the ground.

He was buried in the monastery of Cluny.

His pontificate lasted a little longer than 9 months.

CALLISTUS II : 1119-1124 A.D.

162. Born in Burgundy. Elected February 8 1119 - died December 13, 1124.

He signed the agreement published in Worms concerning the right of the popes to appoint cardinals.

He called the 9th Ecumenical Council and proclaimed the 2nd Crusade.

He was elected in Cluny and accepted the confirmation from the cardinals who remained in Rome, where messengers were sent; therefore, also the election of this Pope was held in Rome.

We owe to Callistus II the end of the struggles for investitures, started by Gregory VII and Henry IV.

He died suddenly in the Lateran Palace and was buried in the Basilica.

His pontificate lasted 5 years and 10 months.

HONORIUS II : 1124-1130 A.D.

163. Born in Fiagnano. Elected December 21, 1124 - died February 13, 1130.

He resumed relations with almost all European countries fighting against the Saracens.

During his pontificate, the famous factions of the Guelphs (in favour of the Pope) and the Ghibellines (in favour of the Emperor) were created.

Since it was not possible to elect the successor of the Pope if the latter was not buried, the body of Honorius, still warm, was put into a temporary grave in the Convent of San Gregorio al Celio.

He was then transferred to the Lateran.

His pontificate lasted 5 years and 2 months.

INNOCENT II : 1130-1143 A.D.

164. Born in Rome. Elected February 23, 1130 - died September 24, 1143.

Soon after his election he was forced to escape.

Lothar from Saxony brought him back to Rome, kissed his foot and lead his she-mule in the procession in exchange for the crowning.

He called the 10th Ecumenical Council, the II Lateran, and dissolved the" Agapete" (community of women working for churchmen, currently called priest's house-keepers).

He was at first buried in the La teran, but seven years later his body was transferred to S. Maria in Trastevere.

His pontificate lasted about 13 years and 7 months.

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