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The Papacy - A Historical Perspective

1261-1276 A.D.

Urban IV : 1261-1264 A.D.

182. Born in Troyes (France), he was surprisingly elected September 4, 1261 during the Conclave of Viterbo, in which he participated to pay his respects to the future Pope - died October 2, 1264.

He confirmed the feast of the Corpus Domini to be celebrated 60 days after Easter and the hymns for the celebration of the feast were written by Thomas Aquinas, while the procession was established by John XXII (1316-1334).

He began to write ordinal numbers on documents followed by his name "Pope Urban IV".

He prohibited the burial in the Vatican Basilica of all those who had not received a pontifical authorisation.

He was buried in the Cathedral of Deruta (Perugia). His pontificate lasted about 3 years.

Clement IV : 1265-1268 A.D.

183. Born in Saint Giles (France). Elected February 15, 1265 - died November 28, 1268.

He excommunicated Conrad of Swabia but this did not avoid the occupation of Rome and Naples.

Before becoming a priest and a bishop he was a man of the world.

He lived and died in Viterbo.

People say that a particular Breve was the first one to be sealed with the piscatory ring (papal ring, with reference to St. Peter).

Clement IV belongs to the group of Popes who never came to Rome, since he spent his entire life in Viterbo.

His pontificate lasted 3 years and 10 months.

BL. Gregory X : 1254-1261 A.D.

184. Born in Piacenza. Elected March 27, 1272 - died January 10, 1276.

After almost three years of vacancy because of disagreements within the Conclave of Viterbo, some men of the people took the roof off and put the cardinals on bread and water, forcing them to make a decision.

He called the 14th Ecumenical Council. With the Bull "Ubi Periculum" (7.7.1274) he explained that after three days of conclave the lunch was reduced to two meals per day, one in the morning and the other one at night; after five days only bread, water and some wine were allowed.

The provisions contained in the "Ubi Periculum" were then eased and finally eliminated, but the enclosure remained and is still used today.

He was buried in the Cathedral of Arezzo. His pontificate lasted about 3 years and 10 months.

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