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The Papacy - A Historical Perspective

1560-1585 A.D.

Pius IV : 1550-1565 A.D.

224. Born in Milan. Elected January 1st 1560 - died December 9, 1565.

He reconvoked and concluded the Council of Trent.

He took action to ensure that Emanuele Filiberto was given back the territory of Piedmont, thereby making the Savoys a part of history.

He forgave all the guilty.

He consecrated Cardinal St. Charles Borromeo and appointed him Secretary of State, this is the first time that this office appears in the Pontifical State.

Pius IV donated the Palace of St. Mark, built upon request of Paul II, to the Republic of Venice as a symbol of gratitude for having allowed the development of the Council of Trent and to give the Republic a distinguished site for its Embassy.

From 1925 to 1943 this palace was used by Benito Mussolini as his personal office when he was leader of the Fascist government.

He was buried in S. Maria degli Angeli, according to his will. His pontificate lasted about 6 years.

St Pius V : 1556-1572 A.D.

225. Born in Bosco. Elected January 17, 1566 - died May 1st 1572.

In order to stem heresy, he promoted education among the people.

He excommunicated Elizabeth of England.

He was the author of Lepanto's Christian victory against the Saracens.

He ordered the use of the Roman Missal, following the decisions taken in Trent, although the churches which had a different tradition for at least two hundred years were exempted.

A typical example is the Ambrosian Missal of Milan, which is quite different from the Roman one, especially in terms of its texts and chronology.

Another church having its own rites is the Spanish Church of Toledo.

He is buried in S. Maria Maggiore, in the chapel of the Holy Crib. His pontificate lasted about 6 years and 4 months.

Gregory XIII : 1572-1585 A.D.

226. Born in Bologna. Elected May 25, 1572 - died April 1O, 1585.

He opened seminars in Vienna, Prague, Graz and Japan.

He celebrated the 11th Jubilee Year (1575).

He reformed the calendar for the whole world and suddenly October 4th became October 15th, the days left were eliminated.

As soon as he was elected, he abolished the habit of holding an expensive banquet for cardinals and ambassadors on the occasion of a crowning, as well as that of throwing money to the people.

Gregory ordered the building of the Torre dei Venti, which represented the first section of the Vatican astronomical observatory, one of the first in the world; two further towers were later added to this structure in the papal gardens.

The Observatory was moved to Castel Gandolfo in 1933 He was buried in the Basilica of St. Peter at his own expense. His pontificate lasted 12 years and 11 months.

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