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The Papacy - A Historical Perspective

1669-1691 A.D.


Clement X
: 1669-1676 A.D.

239. Born in Rome. Elected May 11, 1669 - died July 22, 1676.

He took part in the election of the King of Poland, favouring the appointment of John Sobieski, who was preferred given his Christian faith and the success he recorded against the Turks in the battle of Chaezim.

He celebrated the 15th Jubilee Year (1675).

He was elected after 5 months of discussions of the conclave. He had a harsh dispute with France with regard to the problem of the right to regalia, which was confirmed by Louis XIV.

He was buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. His pontificate lasted about 6 years and 3 months.


BL. Innocent XI
: 1667-1689 A.D.

240. Born in Como. Elected October 4, 1676 - died August 12, 1689.

He abolished the right to immunity and defeated nepotism.

He was opposed to the arrogance of Louis XIV of France.

He pushed the Polish King Sobieskj to defeat the Turks in Vienna.

He introduced the celebration of the Saint name of Mary on September 12th.

Since he was reluctant to give his approvals, he was defined "Papa Minga".

He ordered that women had to go to church wearing modest clothes and with their heads covered.

Innocent XI was the first Pope to grant indulgences to those who exercised the XIV stations, which were adopted and recognised only at the end of the 17th Century.

The first representation of the scenes of the Passion are attributed to Alvaro the Blessed in 1620, a Dominican monk who returned to his convent in Cordova after having been in the Holy Land.

He was buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. His pontificate lasted about 12 years and 11 months.


Alexander VIII
: 1689-1691 A.D.

241. Born in Venice. Elected October 16, 1689 - died February 2, 1691.

He was appointed thanks to the influence of Louis of France, who came to an agreement on the 4 propositions of the "Gallican liberties".

He provided aid to the King of Poland and the people of Venice in a fight against the Turks.

He enlarged the Vatican library by buying, at his own expense, the library of Queen Christine of Sweden.

He reduced the charge for grinding by a "paolo" and, in return, his citizens minted two coins bearing the inscription: "Re frumentaria restituta".

His pontificate lasted 1 year and 4 months.


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