Pius VII : 1800-1823 A.D.
251. Born in Cesena. Elected March 21, 1800 - died July 20, 1823.
Following Napoleon's will, he obtained the Concordat that restored the Church power in France.
He crowned Napoleon in Paris, but after a series of disputes he excommunicated him.
He introduced the white and yellow pontifical flag.
On August 7, 1814, he published the Bull "sollecitudo animarum", through which he rehabilitated the Jesuits; subsequently, he reintroduced the Holy Office, abolished by Napoleon.
He founded the lapidarian gallery in the Vatican, the result of very patient work carried out by Gaetano Marini, and the Chiaromonti Museum.
Above all, he founded the Vatican Picture gallery, one of the richest in the world.
He is buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. His pontificate lasted 23 years and 5 months.
Leo XII : 1823-1829 A.D.
252. Born in Genga (Spoleto). Elected October 5, 1823 - died February 10, 1829.
He reconfirmed the Jesuit Order and eliminated the works of Galileo from the index.
He celebrated the 20th Jubilee Year (1825).
He rebuilt the Basilica of San Paolo, which had been destroyed by fire.
Many frescoes of the pontifical iconography were lost during this incident.
In order to regulate the ancient Roman habit of drinking too much, he ordered the building of "gates" at the entrance of taverns to make it difficult for the drinkers to enter.
Leo was the first Pope who steadily lived in the Vatican, rather than in the Quirinale.
He is buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. His pontificate lasted about 5 years and 5 months.
Pius VIII : 1829-1830 A.D.
253. Born in Cingoli. Elected April 5, 1829 - died November 30, 1830.
The riots of the Risorgimento were gaining ground in Italy.
He was openminded and negotiated with the Sultan in favour of the Armenians.
He introduced the postal service of the Vatican State.
He intensified missions all over the world.
The people of Rome were immediately in favour of Pope Pius VIII because he ordered the abolishment of the detested "gates" in front of taverns, introduced by Leo XII.
He fostered the development of agriculture as well as that of the Post Offices as a regular and constant service provided by the State.
He died after 1 year and 8 months of pontificate. He is buried in the Basilica of St. Peter.
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Index of Roman Pontiffs